Berend Jan VAN VOORST TOT VOORST, Netherlands
Chamber of Regions
Political Group: EPP/CD
Helene LUND, Denmark
Chamber of Local Authorities
Political Group: SOC
The Lisbon Conference (23-24 June 2003) was held by the Congress with the support of the Council of Europe’s integrated project "Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society" and in close co-operation with the Council of Europe's Youth and Sport Directorate.
The Congress had already held a Conference on "Sport and local authorities" in Hungary in 1996, which had led to Recommendation 16 (1996) and Resolution 27 (1996).
The Lisbon Conference would not have been possible without the precious help of the National Association for Portuguese Municipalities (ANMP) and the invitation from Lisbon municipality. The rapporteurs would like to thank them for their welcome and their contribution to the smooth running of the Conference.
Before briefly going over the main conclusions of the Conference, the rapporteurs consider it necessary to outline the reasons which prompted the Congress to address this question.
The first reason was sport itself. It plays an important, not to say growing, role in our societies, helps to strengthen the social fabric, means a great deal to those that practise it, particularly young people, and promotes understanding between individuals and groups from different countries and cultures. It also brings major economic benefits at local, regional and national level. All of this is put at risk by violence.
Next came the problem of sport and violence. The damaging impact of violence or the threat of violence at or in connection with sports events can extend far beyond its victims or those who may witness it.
· It seriously discourages families, women, children, elderly people, ethnic minorities and people with disabilities from attending sports events.
· It creates a climate of fear among people living near stadia, particularly those from ethnic minorities.
· It ties up police and medical resources that could be deployed more productively elsewhere.
· It can also disrupt road and rail traffic over a wide area.
The final reason was the involvement of the local and regional authorities. They have an important role to play both in promoting the positive effects of sport and in combating violence. In this they are motivated by a common desire for their cities and their stadia to be places that law-abiding spectators of all ages can come to and enjoy.
For some decades now, certain types of sports events have formed the backdrop for outbursts of violence and hooliganism. Preventing and stamping out violence at sports events implies getting everyone involved, including the public, the national, regional and local authorities, associations, sports clubs and international institutions.
Violence at sports events cannot be boiled down to a series of isolated incidents. They often have much more serious consequences than would at first appear.
The slightest incident can cause a disaster in a stadium crammed full with tens of thousands of spectators.
Objective and main themes of the conference
The aim of the Lisbon Conference was "to prepare and adopt policy recommendations that will provide guidelines for local and regional authorities for the prevention of violence at sports events, particularly football matches."
Three main themes were considered:
· the role of the local and regional authorities in ensuring spectator security and safety at sports venues;
· the role of the local and regional authorities in welcoming and accompanying spectators; and
· the participation of local inhabitants in the celebrations.
Underlying this was a recognition that these themes are all part of one larger overall picture in which local and regional authorities are involved as regulators, co-ordinators, hosts and facilitators. Indeed, it was significant that the same general principles of responsibility, preparation, prevention, co-ordination, co-operation and participation were reiterated by the speakers and in the discussions on all three themes.
Location and participants
The location of the conference was well chosen. In 2004, Portugal is to host the European football championships (Euro 2004). The issues arising at the conference are thus of very real and immediate interest to the Portuguese local and regional authorities. They were well represented and played an active part in the debates. Most of the speakers either had first-hand experience of major international football tournaments (in 1996, 1998, 2000 or 2002) or were actively preparing for such tournaments in 2004 or 2006.
The significance of the conference goes much wider than Euro 2004. This was reflected in the attendance list. Some 175 delegates from Portugal and a further 185 from 36 other countries participated. It was particularly encouraging to see how many of these were from countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which had formerly had less opportunity to introduce some of the measures described.
Many key figures spoke at the opening and the close of the Conference. At the opening, there were addresses by Mr Pedro Feist, the City of Lisbon's municipal councillor responsible for sport, by Mr Martins, the Council of Europe's Director of Youth and Sport and by the President and Secretary General of the National Association for Portuguese Municipalities (ANMP). The closing speech was by Mr Loureiro, Portugal's junior minister for youth and sport.
Outside the plenary meetings, the Conference was divided into two separate workshops, with the consequence that the participants could choose the themes which concerned them the most. The rapporteurs chaired a number of the working sessions and so they can confirm that the delegates took a lively part in the debates, which were preceded by statements by renowned experts. The Conference (for the Programme, see Appendix 2) ended with the unanimous adoption of a short Declaration (see Appendix 1). A report on the proceedings prepared by John de Quidt and Elizabeth Johnston is set out in a separate document (CG/CULT (10) 4 prov.).
The Convention of the Council of Europe on Spectator Violence
As the Director of Youth and Sport of the Council of Europe reminded delegates at the Lisbon Conference, the Council of Europe adopted the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in particular at Football Matches less than three months after the tragic events at the Heysel Stadium in Brussels on 25 May 1985, in which 39 supporters were killed. The Convention marked a turning point in international co-operation on spectator violence.
After more than seventeen years in existence, it has lost none of its relevance.
As an instrument of public international law, the Convention is binding upon those states that have adopted it. To date, 40 states have signed it, of which 36 have ratified. They have thereby committed themselves to taking practical measures as part of an overall strategy against spectator violence. The Convention created a Standing Committee to monitor and ensure compliance with the Convention and to recommend further measures.
In its early years, the Standing Committee focused particularly, albeit not exclusively, on measures to combat violent incidents. It produced Recommendations inter alia on the consumption and sale of alcohol, crowd searches, police co-operation, the use of police ‘spotters’, ticket sales and the identification and treatment of offenders.
Following the disaster at the Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield on 15 April 1989, in which 96 spectators died, some change of emphasis occurred. This reflected a growing understanding that spectator safety and spectator behaviour were to some extent inter-linked as part of a wider picture. During this phase the Standing Committee produced Recommendations on the promotion of safety, the allocation of responsibilities and stewarding, together with a statement on fences and barriers.
New forms of spectator violence
In recent years there has been a noticeable change in the character of spectator violence. In many countries, measures taken at stadia have largely overcome the problem. However, the violence has not disappeared. It has merely been displaced to the streets and city centres.
Moreover, it is no longer concentrated during the match, or even the period during which spectators are travelling to or from the stadium. Indeed, the participants may not have attended the match. Fights are arranged between organised groups, using modern means of communication such as the Internet or mobile phones, at locations far from the stadium. During international tournaments, violence can occur wherever large groups of visiting supporters have congregated. This is as likely to involve elements of the local population as supporters of other teams. Excessive alcohol consumption may often exacerbate the problem.
At the same time, it is now generally recognised that “football hooliganism” is and always has been part of a wider social phenomenon of violence in society. Not only is violent crime on the rise, particularly among the young, but so too is the fear of crime.
Effective policing and good safety management still have important parts to play in preventing spectator violence. However, it is also necessary to address the complex and deep-rooted social issues that underlie much of the violence. These include insecurity in everyday life, the lack of collective shared values and the weakening of social control and neighbourhood links. These can only be tackled through a range of socio-educational preventive measures directed variously at supporters and disaffected local residents.
It is understandable that, in the past, when emergency measures were required, priority was given to adopting technical and safety measures to prevent the most dramatic events in the short term.
However, action directed more at the root of the problem is now absolutely vital. This is what prompted the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, following up on the work of the Standing Committee, to adopt Recommendation Rec (2001) 6 on the prevention of racism, xenophobia and racial intolerance in sport. This is part of a wider campaign to combat racism by individual states and the international football authorities.
The Recommendation of 2003 on preventive measures
In January 2003, within the context of the Council of Europe’s integrated project “Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society”, the Standing Committee approved Recommendation 2003 (1) on the role of social and educational measures in the prevention of violence in sport. To this it attached a detailed handbook of good practice, from which it invited the parties to the Convention to draw inspiration. Many of these practices had been adopted during Euro 96 in England, the 1998 World Cup in France, Euro 2000 in Belgium and the Netherlands and the 2002 World Cup in Korea and Japan.
The handbook explicitly recognises the role of the local and regional authorities in preventing violence:
“While the constitutional arrangements will vary from country to country, in most of them local authorities are likely to have a major role to play in developing and providing the various measures described in this manual for preventing violence in sport. Indeed, the lowest tier of public institutions, particularly city councils, may need to be catalysts in prevention policies and to give impetus to activities involving sports organisations or associations.”
Before this, the recommendations of the Standing Committee, which is made up of senior civil servants from national governments, had only ever advocated national measures.
In the 2003 recommendation, the Standing Committee specifically recommended that the parties to the Convention enable local authorities to play a major role in devising measures to prevent violence.
The role of local and regional authorities
In his opening remarks, Mr Fernando Calvalho Ruas, Chair of the National Association of Portuguese Municipalities, challenged local and regional authorities to see the prevention of violence as a wide-ranging and integrated programme. It included not only tackling deviant behaviour but proactive socio-educational measures and the provision of good quality and safe facilities. It should not be regarded as a series of routine administrative measures but as a fundamental contribution to the welfare of the city and its inhabitants.
Local authorities should not act in isolation. They should share their experiences and learn from each other in order to identify and propagate good practice.
The rapporteurs can endorse the principles set forth in Congress Recommendation 16 (1996), which called on governments:
· to acknowledge the vital role played by local authorities in promoting sport;
· to foster permanent and effective co-operation between public authorities and voluntary organisations active in the field of sport; and
· to help local authorities to construct and manage sports facilities.
Theme 1: Spectator security and safety - the role of local and regional authorities
This subject occupied half the time of the conference and provided the subject matter for two of the four workshops. A number of factors explain why so much store was set by this theme:
· the design, construction and maintenance of stadia;
· the quality and range of facilities that they offer;
· safety systems, equipment and personnel;
· crowd control and management both inside and outside stadia;
· allocation of seats and control and sale of tickets.
The Chair of the Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence, Mr John de Quidt, explained that local and regional authorities had previously been at best only peripherally involved in many of these issues. Yet they had a strong legitimate interest in every one of them. They were often the only bodies able to see the wider picture and to adopt a holistic approach. Only they could rule between the competing interests of the tournament and match organisers, stadium operators, sports clubs, police, supporters and local residents. It was crucial for different agencies to work together in accordance with a common philosophy, with each clearly aware of its responsibilities and of its role within the overall strategy. The consequences, should they fail to do so, could be catastrophic.
“This common strategy does not just happen, even if the central government decrees it. Somebody has to co-ordinate it and ensure that it is implemented at the local level. I believe that this role can only be performed by the local authorities. In most places these will be the city authorities... Only the city sees the big picture. Football spectators may arrive and depart, but the city has a responsibility for its citizens 365 days a year.”
John de Quidt, Chair of the Standing Committee of the Council of Europe
One area over which many local or regional authorities already exercised some oversight was the construction of stadia. Yet in all too many cases they considered only their structural integrity. However, the design of stadia, including their location and access routes, as well as their physical condition, facilities and comfort could have a significant impact on the behaviour and safety of spectators.
M. de Quidt commended the system whereby the relevant local authority identified, prescribed and enforced the safety requirements for each stadium, including the permitted capacity, in line with overall national guidance. Local authorities should adopt a corporate approach to this function by paying due regard to the advice of the police, fire and emergency medical services, the authority responsible for building design and stadium managers. Such a system was sufficiently flexible for each country to apply it in the light of its own constitutional and legal system.
During the discussion on security and the role of local and regional authorities, Mr Antonio José Ganhao, a member of the Congress's Committee on Culture and the Mayor of Benavente (Portugal), said that while his city would not be hosting any of the matches during Euro 2004, he considered that the tournament concerned all of Portugal's towns and cities, because it was likely that supporters would take the opportunity to visit the whole country. Therefore it was in the common interest of all local authorities to make sure that supporters were safe and foster a positive image of the competition.
The main themes dealt with during the discussion were as follows:
1. Crisis management and relations with the media
According to Mr Uri Rosenthal (Leiden University, the Netherlands), the three main phases of prevention were preparation, quick response and recovery. Crisis simulations and post-event evaluations were essential. The degree of centralisation of decision-making was one of the crucial decisions to take when planning a large-scale event. During preparation for an event, all parties should be fully aware of each other’s roles and responsibilities during the different stages involved.
An important part of crisis management lay in communication. During a crisis, there was a huge increase in the speed and volume of the information that was shared. This increase – if not controlled – could cause rumours to spread. Intense pressure from the media was another factor that organisers had to integrate into their strategy. A quick response was essential, both to satisfy the public's and the press's desire for information and to contain, if not eliminate, negative rumours.
Although huge progress in crisis management had been made in recent years, partly thanks to hard-learned lessons drawn from violence in stadia, not every aspect could be foreseen, owing to the very nature of these crises.
In addition to planning procedures and established rules, crisis management also relied on the improvisational skills of those in charge in the field.
2. The role of municipalities in spectator safety
The situation in the city of Stuttgart (Germany)
Mr Alfons Nastold (Public Order Department, City of Stuttgart) said that the city's main role was, first of all, to issue the necessary permits for the building of a stadium, which had to take account of spectator safety.
As private security firms were hired by clubs to curb violence inside stadia, violence now occurred outside stadia rather than inside, and it was municipalities which were responsible for law and order in and around cities.
In Germany, cities and clubs had previously had their own stewards, who were not professional but “fans”. However, the rise of hooliganism had led to the need for professional stewards, who were now under contract and obliged by law to have a minimum amount of training.
Municipalities had a role to play with regard to spectators themselves, be they local or visiting. It had to be possible for them to be held responsible for the dangerous conduct of their supporters. Those found guilty of violent behaviour had to be prohibited from travelling. Municipalities should also be required to devise supporter reception strategies, finding out more about the visitors they would be receiving.
The police also played a key role, as they were entitled to interrupt a match where necessary. The City of Stuttgart asked the private firms responsible for stadium security to provide it with "security plans", which enabled the police to judge whether the measures taken or planned were sufficient .
The question of who should bear the financial burden of large sporting events was still a controversial matter. It was customary for clubs to pay for the private security staff employed inside stadia.
However, when cities hosted major events, the deployment of the police force and municipal services entailed additional costs. It was estimated that the total cost to taxpayers of holding a UEFA Cup match in Stuttgart was 500,000 Euros.
To promote co-operation between the various parties involved within a clear legal context, Germany had set up a national football information centre, where police specialists met weekly to pool information. Each of Germany's Länder had different rules and procedures concerning the exchange of information. There was, however, a security centre in Düsseldorf which centralised all police data for the Federal state. Some of the information on this database was also accessible to foreign police forces under the laws on personal data protection.
3. Allocating responsibility and co-ordinating stadium security
The situation in various European countries
According to the study on the role of municipalities in ensuring the safety of spectators and local residents (see the handbook on "The prevention of violence in sport") conducted by Ms Elizabeth Johnston (Deputy Executive Director of the European Forum for Urban Safety, Paris*) and presented at the Lisbon Conference, European countries differ in the following areas:
· the legal and administrative autonomy of local authorities;
· the degree of centralisation of police forces;
· the financial potential of local authorities;
· the tradition of preventive activities and the scale of the services available to implement such policies.
The study shows that in many cases the practices adopted by municipalities go beyond legal and administrative provisions. Programmes such as parties and events for supporters involving the local population are examples of activities organised by municipalities to ensure the safety and well-being of visitors and local residents.
It is becoming clear that the involvement of local authorities is essential for the success of prevention policies. This well-established practice in England and the Netherlands, where the public authorities have considerable experience in dealing with football-related violence, has been taking hold for some time now in central and eastern European countries. Co-operation between national and local authorities can take various forms: it may be informal or, as in France and Belgium, organised on the basis of local safety contracts.
Everywhere, co-operation is regarded as a prerequisite for the success of prevention and safety strategies.
During the discussion, an Italian participant said, with regard to a match played in Manchester which had been considered high-risk, that the secret of its success lay in the fact that there was dialogue between the Italian and English police, clubs and local authorities.
Municipalities play a key role within the partnership that needs to be established around each large event, in that they are best placed to protect the public interest. They must seek to reconcile the interests of local residents, visiting supporters, clubs and local businesses.
*1- A network of 300 European local authorities specialised in crime prevention and related problems.
Mr Thierry Solère, Deputy Mayor of Boulogne-Billancourt (France), which is home to the Parc des Princes stadium, said that in recent years, club management had greatly improved, reducing the number of violent incidents. Nevertheless, some matches such as Paris Saint-Germain v. Olympique de Marseille were still considered high-risk. Safety measures taken in connection with these matches put local residents under excess pressure, which affected their quality of life. The massive police presence in the areas surrounding stadia could disturb some residents.
The interest of municipalities is not always the same as that of other partners, as demonstrated in the discussion regarding kick-off times. Considering that night-time increases the risk of incidents, one measure that local authorities can request from organisers is changing the time of a match. It is a well-known fact that matches held in the afternoon tend to attract a more family-based crowd and give rise to fewer violent incidents.
The success of sports events is important for a host city’s image. The Lisbon Conference also showed that local authorities need to invest more in their relations with the media, and to prepare this collaboration sufficiently well in advance. The media have their own expectations vis-à-vis the tournament: they are interested not only in the festivities but also in sensational events. A recent example of the active role played by the media is provided by the events in Charleroi during the Euro 2000 tournament. The press, expecting riots, helped to create an atmosphere of crisis. The role of the media is ambivalent: it can help local authorities “spread the good news” but may also add fuel to the fire.
4. Showing matches on giant screens
The example of the City of Moscow
Mr Valery Karnaukhov (Deputy Director of the City of Moscow's Internal Affairs Department) said that over 900,000 supporters attended football matches in Moscow every year. In recent times, Russia had witnessed a growth in the number of violent groups of supporters.
In order to prevent the violence, Moscow municipality had devised a comprehensive strategy, appointed safety managers to work within football clubs and established co-operation with neighbouring cities.
When there was not enough room to fit all the fans in a stadium, municipalities could decide to set up giant screens in public areas. Although the crowd was not very different from that inside the stadium, the methods of ensuring public safety in such circumstances differed. As there were no tickets and no accreditation, it was impossible to predict how many people would attend. Consequently, measures were taken to restrict spectator access. Spectators were frisked before entering the viewing area and rival fans were placed in separate areas divided by a security corridor.
The presence of a giant screen had an impact on the vicinity: the local authority could take measures to ban the sale of alcohol in the neighbourhood and redirect road traffic. The procedures used when dealing with unlawful acts by spectators were the same as the measures taken during major tournaments.
The incident in Moscow in June 2003 during the World Cup occurred because there was an insufficient number of police on duty, confronted with hooligans who were intent on causing trouble.
5. Stewarding and crowd management
In Portugal, two laws have been adopted on stewarding and they are based on two premises: firstly, stewards only work inside stadia; secondly, their role differs from that of the police (who are still responsible for security and maintaining law and order) and is confined to looking after spectators (including handling any complaints).
The Portuguese authorities have decided not to use volunteers for this task because it requires the experience and training that can only be provided by paid employees.
Further legal mechanisms have been set up, which aim to implement and comply with international recommendations on security and the control of violence at stadia, including the allocation of seats, the separation of rival groups, closed circuit television, emergency exits, searching and the ejection of potential troublemakers.
6. Ticketing – The example of Belgium
This is a very important part of the measures taken to prevent violence, presented at the Lisbon Conference by Mr Jo Vanhecke (Head of the Football Unit, Ministry of the Interior, Belgium).
We feel that we can adopt the following general principle outlined by Mr Vanhecke as our own:
Tickets must be distributed in as fair, equitable and transparent a manner as possible, within the constraints of the necessary security and safety requirements. However, the security and safety interests of the police and public authorities may diverge and at times conflict with the commercial and economic interests of the match and tournament organisers. This can give rise to serious tensions in the run-up to a major tournament if the demand for tickets outstrips the supply.
Ticketing strategy should be based on a number of clear requirements:
· ensuring, on safety grounds, that the number of spectators admitted does not exceed the capacity of the stadium;
· separating rival supporters effectively to eliminate all possibility of conflict between them within the stadium;
· preventing black market sales and ticket fraud;
· distinguishing the responsibilities of the various parties involved (organisers, other distributors and ticket holders) in order to discourage any of them from selling tickets on the black market; and
· identifying ticket holders so that rival supporters are not concentrated in excessive numbers in any area of the neutral sector.
To prevent sales on the black market, the police and public authorities would far prefer to defer all ticket sales until after the competing nations have qualified and it has been determined by the draw when and where each team is to play. At all recent tournaments, the tickets for the general public have gone on sale well before this. This was also likely to be the case at Euro 2004.
Black market sales are highly lucrative and difficult to prevent, often taking place over the Internet. It is incumbent upon the organisers and those through whom they distribute tickets to comply strictly with the Recommendations of the Standing Committee and the rules of the international football authorities in order to prevent transgressions. National football associations which have not sold their full allocation of tickets to their supporters must return any surplus tickets to the organisers.
Multiple applications must also be prevented. Each applicant should be eligible to purchase only a set number of tickets. The applicant’s name (or that of the football association or sponsor should be recorded on the ticket, which should be non-transferable. No tickets should be sold through unaccountable travel agencies or tour operators. Finally it should be a criminal offence to sell tickets on the black market.
Above all, ticketing must be managed according to a clear pre-arranged strategy. The absence of such a strategy or a failure to follow it may have significant adverse effects for the safety and security of the tournament.
Main conclusions on security aspects
For the local and regional authorities concerned, it goes without saying that it is essential for sports events, particularly football matches (and above all the major European and international tournaments), to be held in the best possible security conditions for local and visiting spectators. However, views differ on how best to achieve this. The rapporteurs, who were directly involved in the discussions at the conference, have come to the following conclusions:
· An all-important factor is co-ordination (which requires legal, financial and human resources), one example being safety contracts. All of these methods must take account of the impact of the event on local residents and be geared to the actual threat of violence, not to mention terrorism.
· Because of safety issues, there are doubts about the wisdom of setting up giant screens for supporters without tickets. Is it less dangerous to assemble all of these supporters in front of a giant screen?
· Training is essential for people involved in the organisation of major sports events, crisis management and co-ordination, hence the importance of trainers and instructors.
· Information must be circulated by setting up appropriate means of communication between the partners in the different countries and areas of activity concerned.
· Local and regional authorities can and must contribute to the success of major sports events, particularly Euro 2004. The Portuguese authorities are determined to learn the lessons of past competitions, while acknowledging the enormity of the task. They have made major progress in preparing their stadia and devising legal frameworks but the new stewarding system is not yet operational as it still needs to be tested in the field.
· In the light of failures at previous tournaments, the delegates expressed particular concern about ticketing, which was still a key problem. An ineffective policy in this area, which failed to involve all of the parties concerned, would pose a serious threat to spectator safety and law and order.
Theme 2: Welcoming and accompanying spectators
The Lisbon Conference showed that firm policing and safety management alone might prevent violence in the short term, but there must also be a strategy to care for spectators, including the welcome afforded them through the efforts of local and regional authorities to organise an attractive accompanying programme of events, provide clear information and lay on good public transport facilities.
1. The example of Stuttgart (Germany)
“Security is for me more than just a police matter. Security also means that visitors should feel at home, that they should feel welcome and be able to find their way around easily. Only in such circumstances can the risk of fights, material damage and other disturbances be perhaps not completely eliminated but at least substantially reduced.”
Jürgen Beck, Deputy Mayor of Stuttgart
Mr Beck pointed out that, for an increasing number of spectators in a whole variety of sports, the festive events as a whole were as important as the match itself. They were looking for fun and entertainment. Many cities were already used to receiving visitors and provided programmes of events for them to enjoy.
However, the interests of supporters were likely to differ from those of other tourists. The host cities would therefore need to arrange other appropriate attractions. Nevertheless supporters should receive the same welcome as all other visitors.
2. The example of Liège (Belgium)
Mr Willy Demeyer (Mayor of Liège) emphasised that local and regional authorities had an interest in providing an attractive, welcoming environment which would leave a lasting impression on visiting supporters and encourage them to return as tourists. This required substantial preparation and constant attention by the host authorities.
Tourist offices were an important source of information on accommodation and transport. However, ticket-related matters were outside their scope.
Fan embassies working in partnership with the local authorities therefore played a key role in advising supporters and ensuring that they knew where to go and how to get there. The local
authorities should work with fan embassies and supporters’ groups when preparing their publicity material encouraging spectators to enjoy themselves and to refrain from acts of violence. They should also, where possible, encourage the media to convey a positive message and to avoid glamorising violence.
3. The example of Rome
Fan coaching also had a part to play in supporters’ home cities well before they travelled to any match. In view of the link between urban violence and violence in sport, Mr Maurizio Bartolucci (a municipal councillor in Rome responsible for the “Roma Sicura” Unit) stressed the need to reach out to alienated young people and steer them away from a life of crime. Sport could play a key part in this. In Italy, public order policies were decided by the Ministry of the Interior and that - together with the fact that they received no specific funding in this connection (either from the State or from the sports authorities) - accounted for the limited role of local authorities. Furthermore, the media and sports clubs often had different interests: the media did not take a strong enough stance against violence, and clubs were sometimes too indulgent.
Rome municipality's "Living within the law" project, which was aimed at showing young people that institutions could be on their side, provided training in mediation for youth leaders and organised welcomes for rival clubs coming to Rome.
A media campaign had also been organised, to which well-known sports personalities were contributing by appearing as "witnesses" in television advertisements.
Today, Rome municipality was more concerned about rivalry between clubs than major football events.
4. The experience of a high-level athlete
Speaking as an international athlete, Ms Susana Feitor (Portugal) reminded the conference that the behaviour of the players had a significant impact upon the atmosphere of a match.
They should contribute to the festive atmosphere by acting with dignity and sportsmanship, providing a good example to supporters.
5. Fan embassies in the United Kingdom
Mr Kevin Miles said that travelling supporters often wondered whether they were going to be welcomed as guests or perceived as intruders. Fan embassies provided advice and information and helped to reduce tensions, thereby contributing indirectly to the prevention of violence.
Ideally, fan embassies were run by fans, were independent of the police and targeted the specific needs of football supporters. They were expected to be a reliable source of information.
While municipalities played an essential role in setting them up, fan embassies were independently managed and that was why they were respected and trusted by fans. In practice, there had never
been any conflict of interest between fan embassies and public authorities. Fan embassies from the UK and Germany would be travelling to Portugal for Euro 2004.
6. Fan coaching
The experience of Liège (Belgium)
Mr Manuel Comeron presented fan coaching activities, based on his experience in the city of Liège (Belgium). This pro-active prevention programme, which was an integral part of the local safety contract occupying six social workers, comprised activities designed to establish contact with young supporters, provide them with material support and encourage them to take on responsibilities. The work they did was aimed at finding them a place in society and could be used as a stepping stone to establish a link with municipal social services, which could help young people on a short-term basis or in a more far-reaching way. The programme was not implemented in schools but complemented the activities of associations and other institutions.
Because many European municipalities had found fan coaching schemes to be effective and in order to favour the exchange of best practices, the City of Liège had been instrumental in establishing a European network called Eurofan.
The experience of the association "Sporting Youth of Germany"
Mr Thomas Schneider shared his experience of fan coaching projects in Germany, which were aimed at welcoming fans with respect.
For Euro 2004, for example, these projects could:
· rely on the help of Portuguese students;
· produce practical information leaflets for supporters in various languages.
The national strategy which Germany had adopted in 1992 promoted a partnership-based approach to efforts to combat growing spectator violence, based on targeted campaigns requiring shared responsibility among civil society, the sports community and public institutions.
As efforts to combat violent behaviour required in-depth and long-term efforts, fan projects should be given ongoing support and be independent from judicial and police authorities.
Local authorities, the federal state and professional clubs contributed equally to the funding of fan projects. However, their functional links with projects were loose so as to preserve their independence. The main challenge for fan projects was to gain and nurture the fans' trust: this was why institutional partners should not interfere in field work or in any relations that might be established with young fans.
Priority had to be given to combating racism and xenophobia in the world of football among both fans and players. Getting players involved could help to promote multiculturalism and efforts to combat racism.
7. Keeping supporters and inhabitants informed
Mr Mario Texeira (head of Lisbon municipality's Sports Facilities Division) stressed the importance of communicating with supporters and inhabitants. As a social phenomenon, sport played an important role in many respects:
· It helped to improve a country's image abroad.
· It could strengthen national cohesion and pride.
· It could increase local inhabitants' involvement in sport or even encourage everyone to practise sport.
Particular attention should be given to major sports events, as sports tourism accounted for one third of all world tourism today. The sports event should not make us forget that supporters were also tourists.
The management of any “event” in its broadest sense should pursue the following goals:
· attract before the event;
· enjoy during the event;
· satisfy after the event.
In order to achieve these goals, the City of Lisbon would make provisions such as a specific Euro 2004 website, giant screens on match days and supporters’ embassies, as well as promoting in-depth social work.
Theme 3: Involving local residents
When a club based in a particular city competes against a club from another city or country, its supporters have the opportunity to participate fully both in the match and in any related festivities. This does not apply during a major international tournament. The visitors from elsewhere attending each sports event will probably considerably outnumber the local inhabitants. It is important for the local population to feel that the tournament belongs to them and that they have a sense of civic pride in it.
All the speakers at the Lisbon Conference stressed that the local authority should get its citizens involved in any social or cultural events provided for spectators. Moreover it was important to organise appropriate events for the local population, particularly in poorer or minority areas where the risk of alienation and potential disorder was greatest.
1. What happened in Nantes during the 1998 World Cup
Mr Jacques Tallut (former director of the Nantes World Cup Task Force) described how the World Cup had contributed to the city's strategic development. Two years before the tournament, the local authority had established a local multi-agency organising committee in parallel with the national organising committee. Its objectives had been as follows:
“Emphasise Nantes’ potential at national and international level by highlighting its competencies in [the area of the] economy, culture, sport and transportation.
Enhance the image of Nantes and its region by showing its dynamism, quality of life and [potential] as a host city. Mobilise the people of Nantes for this event [through] a democratic approach to the World Cup, emphasising its organisation as much as the importance of making this event an occasion of joyous festivity, to be shared by the largest number of people possible.”
The local authority had been able to mobilise the energy and enthusiasm of a large number of different groups. They had displayed a strong team spirit and a will to succeed. They had been helped by the presence of the Brazilian team in Nantes and the progress and eventual triumph of the French team. The extensive programme of events, which had begun up to a year in advance and continued throughout the tournament, had proved highly popular. It had had a long-term effect upon the self-image of the city. Similar positive responses had been reported from Liège and other cities in the aftermath of recent tournaments.
The events that had been staged all over the city before and during the tournament fell into three main categories:
- Economic: Events designed to enhance the economic potential of Nantes metropolitan area at both national and international level. These had focused on companies that had links with the competing countries, especially Spain, Brazil and the United States, with a particular emphasis on public relations and publicity material.
- Cultural and festive: Events designed to promote local talent, spread creativity at national and international level, encourage the expression of different cultures and make the World Cup one big party, catering for all tastes.
- Sport: Events intended to promote sporting activity as part of the lifestyle in each locality and to enable as many inhabitants as possible to participate in the World Cup.
These events, which had had a strong Brazilian theme, included:
· the creation of an artificial “Copacabana” beach using three million tonnes of sand;
· an international beach volleyball tournament;
· the Nantes Carnival and a fireworks display;
· a music festival, touring shows and exhibitions, which altogether had attracted 500,000 spectators;
· several football tournaments for supporters and for some 15,000 local young people ;
· a celebration of Muscadet wines and a special market for regional produce.
Nantes municipality had covered about a third of the cost of these activities, which amounted to some 3,900,000 Euros. Further substantial contributions had come from the Cité des Congrès and from local taxes. The remainder had been met by the state and other sources. The city had also faced the cost of upgrading the stadium. This would have been necessary in any event to bring it up to current standards. While the World Cup had cost the city of Nantes a considerable sum, this was outweighed by the economic and social benefits.
2. The experience of the 2002 World Cup
Mr Hiromi Sanguu (Deputy Director-General, Department of Policy and Planning, Niigata Prefecture, Japan) was equally positive about the impact of the 2002 World Cup upon his city. The citizens of Niigata had been overwhelmed by the enthusiasm of the supporters, the like of which they had never seen before. This had left a lasting impression upon the city.
“One year has passed since the end of the World Cup and its influence is still being felt. At games played by Albirex Niigata, which is Niigata’s professional football team, the stadium has been packed for every game. The ideal of regional residents supporting a regional team is becoming a reality for the first time in Niigata Prefecture. ... The residents of Niigata ... have learned how to enjoy sports, and the culture of sports has taken root in this region and in the daily lives of Niigata citizens.”
The transport arrangements had worked extremely well (three hundred buses had been used to transport 23,000 spectators both ways in 90 minutes). The city had provided clear signs with detailed information. These arrangements had attracted much praise from supporters, as had the measures taken to convey 12,000 spectators back to Tokyo late in the evening after the England v. Denmark match. It was clear that efficient, stress-free travel had contributed greatly to the festive atmosphere and to the enjoyment of spectators.
The shuttle buses had proved less successful during the Confederations Cup in 2001, when about 2,000 spectators had failed to reach the stadium in time. The local authority had reviewed the arrangements with all the relevant transport bodies and tested them thoroughly before the World Cup. This clearly demonstrated the importance of planning and testing all systems and procedures well in advance. Indeed, as other speakers noted, this lesson applied not only to the transport arrangements but to important matters such as the allocation of responsibilities, policing and safety management and the provision of information to visitors and local people.
The local authority had also played an important role in reassuring local residents, who had no experience of large football crowds. Some had been alarmed by lurid reports in the media about hooliganism. The local authority had adopted an approach based upon the concept of risk management. In addition to the necessary counter-terrorist measures, this had involved visible proactive policing at all key locations backed by border controls, the sharing of information by the
visiting countries, the deployment of spotters and by keeping different groups of supporters apart. These measures had proved completely successful. There had not been a single incident at the World Cup in Niigata.
Some of the conference participants drew particular attention to the warm welcome afforded visitors by the citizens of Niigata and indeed by all the Japanese and Korean host cities. This had probably contributed more than any other factor to the atmosphere of the tournament.
3. Public awareness
How the city of Aveiro (Portugal) is preparing for Euro 2004
Mr Alberto Souto Miranda (Mayor of Aveiro, Portugal) emphasised the need to show the people of Aveiro that the competition would have long-term benefits for their city. The new stadium would have the potential to host events other than football matches such as concerts and would form part of a multi-sport complex. In addition to the stadium, the city would be constructing new housing and improving its road infrastructure.
The cost of these projects had come in for criticism but this had now partly subsided as the city had arranged guided tours of the building site for local people so that they could see for themselves how work was progressing.
The local authority was also committed to creating a festival atmosphere in co-operation with local cultural groups, teachers and schools, so that local people could be involved in staging various events.
Conclusion regarding the involvement of local residents
The experiences of two cities with very different cultural contexts (Nantes in 1998 and Niigata in 2002) and Aveiro's preparations for Euro 2004 lead to similar conclusions. They provide valuable lessons for the cities that will host major tournaments in the future.
To create a festival atmosphere, a city must get both visiting spectators and the local population involved. The local authorities need to ensure that the transport infrastructure is able to carry both visitors and local people to and from the various sporting and cultural events. Those uninterested in the tournament must also be able to attend the cultural events and benefit economically from the influx of visitors.
Preparation of the stadia for Euro 2004 in Portugal
The Lisbon Conference gave participants the chance to find out about preparations for Euro 2004. Mr Lynce (President of the limited company, Portugal 2004 S.A.) said that of the ten stadia (7 new and 3 upgraded), four belonged to football clubs and six to local authorities.
Twenty-five percent of the funding came from the Portuguese government and the remainder from other commercial or private sources.
The construction or refurbishment of the stadia was only one aspect of the national and local authorities' work. Euro 2004 provided a unique opportunity not merely to equip Portugal with a network of high-quality sporting infrastructures able to guarantee the security and safety of spectators but also to provide high quality leisure and transport facilities
Mr Walker (Chair of the UEFA Stadium and Security Committee) said that the ten stadia (which would be ready by 30 September 2003) represented a major undertaking in the areas of facilities, quality and safety. In other countries, experience had shown that attendances would rise as spectators grew to appreciate the new facilities. It took time to commission stadia and quality safety measures required a “new management culture”.
Every stadium would require a stadium manager and a safety officer who were both qualified and competent, together with trained and effective stewards. Those in charge should not become so obsessed by security that they forgot the festive nature of the event.
Alongside the formal sessions, the conference participants had the opportunity to meet informally and compare their experiences. Such contacts are very useful for cities and towns planning to host major competitions.
The conference did not throw up any radical new ideas for the preparation or management of sports events, particularly major football matches. However, it did make it possible to identify and promulgate good practices developed in a number of cities and towns which have already hosted major sports events but about which we sometimes know very little. The conference should therefore be seen as a springboard for the development of a series of practical measures.
At the conference, the following points became quite clear:
· Local and regional authorities have a key role to play in the prevention of violence. Only they can rule between the competing interests of tournament or match organisers, stadium operators, football clubs, the police, supporters and local residents. In some countries, this has hitherto probably received insufficient attention. This deficiency should now be rectified.
· Preventing violence is not simply the responsibility of the police. Nor is it solely to do with crowd control on a match day. It has an important social and educational dimension, particularly among disaffected or marginalised young people, much of which falls to local and regional authorities.
· It is therefore essential to adopt an integrated approach whereby all the authorities and agencies concerned work in partnership, in accordance with a common strategy. Each body needs to understand its responsibilities and those of its partners.
· Spectators should be treated as visitors to be welcomed and entertained and not as an invading army. Local and regional authorities should recognise the valuable contribution of
fan embassies in providing assistance to spectators and in influencing their behaviour. They should engage with supporters and keep them informed.
· Measures are required to deal with the small minority who misbehave. These may at times need to be very strict. But they should be proportionate to the problem and carefully targeted so as not to alienate the decent majority of law-abiding supporters who are there only to enjoy the sports event.
· Local and regional authorities should aim to create a festive atmosphere not only for the visitors but for their own citizens, who will still be there when the tournament is over. Local people should be encouraged to adopt the celebrations as their own.
· A major tournament provides local and regional authorities with a great opportunity to promote their city and region, to give out a positive image both at home and in other countries, to benefit the local economy and, looking to the longer term, to build new facilities.
· Local and regional authorities need to plan carefully well in advance. In particular they need to have their transport infrastructure in place in good time.
The way forward
The Final Declaration calls on the Congress to work with the Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events to draw up and distribute a guide to good practices, at local and regional level, on the prevention of spectator violence at sports events.
For these future activities, the Congress can base itself on the following documents:
· the Standing Committee’s Recommendation on the role of social and educational measures in the prevention of violence in sport and the attached handbook of good practice; and
· the study by the European Forum for Urban Security on the role of local authorities in preventing violence in sport in Europe.
ON THE RÔLE OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES
IN PREVENTING VIOLENCE AT SPORT EVENTS,
IN PARTICULAR FOOTBALL MATCHES
Lisbon, 23-24 June 2003
We, the participants in the 1st Conference on the role of local and regional authorities in preventing violence at sports events, in particular football matches, held in Lisbon on 23 and 24 June 2003:
1. Thank the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) for having taken the initiative of organising this conference in co-operation with the Council of Europe’s Directorate of Youth and Sport;
2. Thank the Municipality of Lisbon for their warm welcome and their hospitality, and the National Association for Portuguese Municipalities for its help in organising the conference;
3. Affirm that sport fosters social integration and participation and, in this respect, makes a valuable contribution to democracy;
4. Believe that sport plays an important role in promoting understanding between European citizens;
5. Emphasise that sport has major economic benefits at local, regional and national level;
6. Note that sport is an important activity in our societies and forms an integral part of local community activities and that local and regional authorities should therefore endeavour to promote and support it;
7. Are concerned about the violent incidents seen in and around sports stadiums, and in the towns that host sports events, particularly football matches;
8. Consider it necessary to implement appropriate preventive policies against such violence;
9. Having regard to the work of the Council of Europe, which for over twenty years has promoted an overall approach to the prevention of violence at sports events;
10. Taking into account the initiatives and decisions by the European Union to improve security at professional football matches and their consequences for the local and regional authorities;
11. Bearing in mind the measures adopted by FIFA, the UEFA, national football associations and the European Forum for Urban Security (FESU), underline the importance of everyone benefiting from the positive outcome of major sport events;
12. Having taken note of the recent recommendations by the Standing Committee of the Council of Europe’s European Convention on Spectator Violence, which highlight the increased role which should be played by the local authorities in preventing violence at sports events, in particular the implementation of social and educational measures and fan coaching schemes;
13. Are aware of the variety of situations existing in the various countries with regard to:
- the degree of centralisation or decentralisation of the police;
- the degree of autonomy enjoyed by the local authorities;
- the level on which policies for preventing violence are formulated and implemented;
14. Underline the importance of good co-operation between local and regional authorities and police and security services;
15. Affirm the major role played by the local and regional authorities in preventing violence at sports events, whether as regulators or co-ordinators of safety or security measures, owners of sports facilities, employers of the staff working at these facilities, actors in policies to promote amateur sport or initiators of prevention-oriented social and educational measures;
16. Call on the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, in co-operation with the Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence (ETS 120), to continue its support for the policy of preventing violence in sports arenas and the surrounding areas, in particular by:
16.1 Drawing up and distributing a guide of good practices, at local and regional level, on the prevention of spectator violence at sports events;
16.2 Regularly updating this guide;
17. Express the wish that the conclusions of this conference be taken fully into account in the framework of the Integrated Project “Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society” of the Council of Europe
ON THE RÔLE OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES
IN PREVENTING VIOLENCE AT SPORT EVENTS,
IN PARTICULAR FOOTBALL MATCHES
Lisbon, 23-24 June 2003
Monday, 23 June 2003
8.30 - 9.30 am Registration of participants
9.30 - 10.45 am Opening sitting (Room Europa)
Mr. Pedro FEIST, Municipal Councillor responsible for Sport, City of Lisbon
Mr. Mário MARTINS, Director of Youth and Sport of the Council of Europe
Mr. Fernando CARVALHO RUAS, President of the National Association for Portuguese Municipalities (ANMP), Mayor of Viseu
Baron Berend-Jan Van VOORST TOT VOORST, Governor of the Province of Limburg (Netherlands), President of the Culture and Education Committee of the CLRAE
10.45 - 11.15 am Coffee break (Room Roma)
11.15 am – 1 pm Introduction to the three conference themes (Room Europa)
Mr. Jean-Pierre TITZ, Project Manager, Integrated Project « Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society », Council of Europe
Theme 1: The role of local and regional authorities in ensuring spectator security and safety at sports venues
Mr. John DE QUIDT (United Kingdom), Chair of the Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events
Theme 2: The role of local and regional authorities in welcoming and accompanying spectators
Mr. Jürgen BECK, Deputy Mayor responsible for environment, safety, law and order of the City of Stuttgart (Germany)
Theme 3: Participation of local inhabitants in the celebrations
Mr. Jacques TALLUT, former Director of the Nantes World Cup mission, on behalf of Mrs Marie-Françoise Clergeau, Deputy Mayor of the City of Nantes responsible for Youth, Sports and Community Life, Deputy of Loire-Atlantique (France)
1 – 3 pm Lunch – invitation from the National Association of Portuguese Municipalities
(Hotel Altis, Room Girassol, 2nd floor)
3 – 6 pm Workshops on Theme 1:
The role of local and regional authorities in ensuring spectator security and safety at sports venues
The presentation of the sub-themes (about 10 minutes for each) will be followed by a debate.
Workshop 1.1 (Room Europa)
1.1.1. Co-ordination and crisis management, including how to deal with the media
1.1.2. Role of the municipality in ensuring spectator safety
Workshop 1.2 (Room Petropolis)
4.30 - 5 pm Coffee break (Room Roma)
Workshop 1.1 (continuation)
1.1.3. Sharing of responsibility and security co-ordination at sports venues
1.1.4. Management of giant screens
Workshop 1.2 (continuation)
1.2.3. Progress with the preparation of the stadiums for EURO 2004
In the evening Dinner invitation from the City of Lisbon
(UNIÃO DE COMERCIANTES DE LISBOA, near Hotel ALTIS)
Tuesday 24 June 2003
9.30 - 10.15 am Plenary Session (Room Europa)
"The role of local and regional authorities in welcoming and accompanying spectators"
"Participation of local inhabitants in the celebrations"
Mr. Willy DEMEYER, Mayor of Liège (Belgium)
Mr. Maurizio BARTOLUCCI, Municipal Councillor responsible for the Unit “Roma Sicura”, City of Roma (Italy)
Mr. Willy DEMEYER, Mayor of Liège, (Belgium)
Ms Susana FEITOR, high-level athlete (Portugal)
10.15 - 10.45 am Coffee break (Room Roma)
10.45 am - 1 pm Workshops on themes 2 and 3
Workshop 2 (Room Europa)
2.1. Fan Embassies:
2.2. Fan coaching:
2.3. Proper information for supporters and inhabitants (role and use of information channels: tourist offices, the press, etc):
Workshop 3 (Room Petropolis)
3.1. The programme of events and how to fund it: Mr. Jacques TALLUT, former Director of the Nantes World Cup mission (France)
3.2. Experience of the 2002 World Cup:
3.3. Public awareness
1 - 3 pm Lunch
3 - 4 pm Conclusions of the four workshops (Room Europa)
Mrs Helene LUND, President of the Culture and Education Committee of the Chamber of Local Authorities of the CLRAE (Denmark)
Ø Presentation of the conclusions by the moderators
4.30 - 5.30 pm General report, adoption of the Final Declaration and close of the conference
Mr. Antonio José GANHAO, Mayor of Benavente, member of CLRAE (Portugal)
Presentation of the general report by:
Mr. John DE QUIDT (United Kingdom), Chair of the Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events
Presentation of the draft Final Declaration by:
Baron Bernard Jan VAN VOORST TOT VOORST, President of the Culture and Education Committee of the CLRAE
Adoption of the Final Declaration
Mr. Hermínio LOUREIRO, Secretary of State for Youth and Sport of Portugal