Strasbourg, 2 June 2015

CEPEJ(2015)1

EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF JUSTICE

(CEPEJ)

SCHEME FOR EVALUATING JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

2014-2016 CYCLE


Contents

1. Demographic and economic data. 3

1.1 Inhabitants and economic information. 3

1.2. Budgetary data concerning judicial system.. 3

1.3. Budgetary data concerning the whole justice system.. 6

2. Access to Justice and to all courts. 7

2.1        Legal aid. 7

2.2 Users of the courts and victims. 9

3. Organisation of the court system.. 12

3.1 Courts. 12

3.2 Judges and non-judge staff 14

3.3 Public prosecutors and staff 16

3.4 Management of the court budget 17

3.5 Use of Technologies in courts. 18

3.6 Performance and evaluation. 18

4. Fair trial 22

4.1 Principles. 22

4.2 Timeframes of proceedings. 23

5. Career of judges and public prosecutors. 30

5.1        Recruitment and promotion. 30

5.2 Training. 34

5.3 Practice of the profession. 36

5.4 Disciplinary procedures. 37

6. Lawyers. 39

6.1 Status of the profession and training. 39

6.2 Practising the profession. 40

6.3 Quality standards and disciplinary proceedings. 41

7. Alternative Dispute Resolution. 42

8. Enforcement of court decisions. 43

8.1 Execution of decisions in civil matters. 43

8.2 Execution of decisions in criminal matters. 47

9. Notaries. 47

10. Court interpreters. 49

11. Judicial experts. 49

12. Foreseen reforms. 51


SCHEME FOR EVALUATING JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

Note: If the comments provided by national correspondents in the previous scheme still apply, they must nevertheless be repeated for this evaluation cycle.

COUNTRY:

National correspondent

First Name – Name            

Position                            

Organisation                      

E-mail                               

Telephone                         

1. Demographic and economic data

1.1 Inhabitants and economic information

1.             Number of inhabitants (if possible on 1 January 2015)                            

2.             Total of annual public expenditure at state level and where appropriate, public expenditure at regional or federal entity level (in €) - (If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP).

State or federal level                                     NA  NAP

Regional / federal entity level (total for all regions / federal entities)               NA  NAP

3.             Per capita GDP (in €) in current prices for the reference year (2014)        

4.             Average gross annual salary (in €) for the reference year (2014)              

5.             Exchange rate of national currency (non-Euro zone) in € on 1 January 2015       

***

A.1       Please indicate the sources for questions 1 to 4 and give comments concerning the interpretation of the figures supplied if appropriate:

1.2. Budgetary data concerning judicial system

6.             Annual approved public budget allocated to the functioning of all courts, in € (if possible without the budget of the public prosecution services and without the budget of legal aid). If possible, please also indicate the implemented annual public budget regarding the functioning of all courts, in €: (Modified question)

Approved budget (in €)

Implemented budget (in €)

TOTAL annual budget allocated to the functioning of all courts (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

1. Annual public budget allocated to (gross) salaries

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

2. Annual public budget allocated to computerisation (equipment, investments, maintenance)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

3. Annual public budget allocated to justice expenses (expertise, interpretation, etc), without legal aid. NB: this does not concern the taxes and fees to be paid by the parties.

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

4. Annual public budget allocated to court buildings (maintenance, operating costs)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

5. Annual public budget allocated to investments in new (court) buildings

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

6. Annual public budget allocated to training

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

7. Other (Please specify)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

Please indicate any useful comment to explain the figures provided:

If the annual public budget allocated to the functioning of all courts actually implemented is different from the approved annual public budget allocated to the functioning of all courts, please indicate the main differences:

                                                                                                                         

7.             If you cannot separate the budget of the public prosecution services and the budget of legal aid from the budget allocated to all courts, please indicate it clearly. If “other”, please specify:

8.             Are litigants in general required to pay a court tax or fee to start a proceeding at a court

of general jurisdiction:

forcriminal cases?                              Yes              No

for other than criminal cases?  Yes              No

If yes, are there exceptions to the rule to pay court a tax or fee? Please provide comments on those exceptions:

8.1.      Please briefly present the methodology of calculation of courts fees?

8.2     Please indicate, if possible, the amount of court fees to commence an action for 3000€ debt recovery?

9.            Annual income of court taxes or fees received by the State (in €)

                    NA  NAP

12.         Annual approved public budget allocated to legal aid, in €. - If one or several data are not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (Modified question)

Total

Criminal cases

Other than criminal cases

Total annual approved public budget allocated to legal aid (12.1 + 12.2)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

12.1 Annual approved public budget allocated to legal aid for cases brought to court

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

12.2 Annual approved public budget allocated to legal aid for non-litigious cases or cases not brought to court (legal consultation, ADR, etc.)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

If

12.1        Annual implemented public budget allocated to legal aid, in €. - If one or several data are not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (New question)

Total

Criminal cases

Other than criminal cases

Total  annual public budget  implemented regarding legal aid (12.1 + 12.2)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

12.1 Annual public budget  implemented regarding legal aid for cases brought to court

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

12.2 Annual public budget implemented regarding legal aid for non-litigious cases or cases not brought to court (legal consultation, ADR, etc.)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

 the annIf the public budget actually implemented regarding legal aid is different from the annual approved public budget allocated to legal aid, please indicate the main differences:

                                                                                                                         

13.       Total annual approved public budget allocated to the public prosecution services, in €. If possible, please also indicate the implemented annual public budget allocated for the public prosecution services, in €: (Modified question)

        

Approved budget (in €)

Implemented budget (in €)

Total annual public budget allocated to the public prosecution services, in €

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

Please indicate any useful comment to explain the figures provided:

If the annual public budget allocated to the public prosecution services actually implemented is different from the approved annual public budget allocated to the public prosecution services, please indicate the main differences:

                                                                                                                         

14.  Authorities formally responsible for the budgets allocated to the courts (multiple options possible):

Preparation of the total court budget

Adoption of the total court budget

Management and allocation of the budget among the courts

Evaluation of the use of the budget at a national level

Ministry of Justice

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

Other ministry

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

Parliament

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

Supreme Court

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

High Judicial Council

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

Courts

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

Inspection body

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

Other

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

 Yes  No

 NA  NAP

If any other Ministry and/or inspection body and/or other, please specify (considering question 14):

***

A.2       You can indicate below:

-              any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

-               the characteristics of your budgetary system and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

-               if available, an organisation scheme with a description of the competencies of the different authorities responsible for the budget process

Please indicate the sources for answering questions 6, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13:

1.3. Budgetary data concerning the whole justice system

15.1     Annual approved public budget allocated to the whole justice system, in € (this global budget includes the court system as defined under question 6 and also the prison system, the judicial protection of juveniles, the operation of the Ministry of Justice, etc.). If possible, please also indicate the implemented annual public budget allocated for the whole justice system, in €:

        

Approved budget (in €)

Implemented budget (in €)

Total annual public budget allocated to the whole justice system, in €

      / NA

      / NA

Please indicate any useful comment to explain the figures provided above and specify if a large portion of the budget allocated to the whole justice system comes from an international organisation:

If the annual public budget allocated to the whole justice system actually implemented is different from the approved annual public budget allocated to the whole justice system, please indicate the main differences:

                                                                                                                         

15.2      Please indicate the budgetary elements that are included in the whole justice system: 

Judicial system (Q6, Q12 and Q13)

Court (see question 6)                                                   Yes  No    NA  NAP

Legal aid (see question 12)                                           Yes  No   NA  NAP

Public prosecution services (see question 13)                Yes  No   NA  NAP

Other budgetary items

Prison system                                                             Yes  No   NA  NAP

Probation services                                                        Yes  No   NA  NAP

Council of the judiciary                                                 Yes  No   NA  NAP

Constitutional court                                                      Yes  No   NA  NAP

Judicial management body                                           Yes  No   NA  NAP

State advocacy                                                                        Yes  No    NA  NAP

Enforcement services                                                   Yes  No   NA  NAP

Notariat                                                                        Yes  No   NA  NAP

Forensic services                                                         Yes  No   NA  NAP

Judicial protection of juveniles                                      Yes  No   NA  NAP

Functioning of the Ministry of Justice                            Yes  No   NA  NAP

Refugees and asylum seekers services                         Yes  No   NA  NAP

Some police services                                                   Yes  No   NA  NAP

(e.g. : transfer, investigation, prisoners’ security)          

Other                                                                            Yes  No   NA  NAP

If “other”, please specify:

A.3       Please indicate the sources for answering questions 15-1 and 15-2:

Please indicate, when appropriate, any useful comment to explain the figures provided:

2. Access to Justice and to all courts

2.1  Legal aid

16.  Does legal aid apply to:

Criminal cases

Other than criminal cases

Representation in court

 Yes  No  NA  NAP

 Yes  No  NA  NAP

Legal advice

 Yes  No  NA  NAP

 Yes  No  NA  NAP

17.  Does legal aid include the coverage of or the exemption from court fees?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

18.  Can legal aid be granted for the fees that are related to the enforcement of judicial

      decisions (e.g. fees of an enforcement agent)?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

19.  Can legal aid be granted for other costs (different from questions 16 to 18, e.g. fees of

            technical advisors or experts, costs of other legal professionals (notaries), travel costs etc.)?  

Criminal cases

Other than criminal cases

 Yes  No  NA  NAP

 Yes  No  NA  NAP

If yes, please specify:

20.    Number of cases referred to the court for which legal aid has been granted. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

This question concerns only the annual number of cases which have benefitted from legal aid following the referral to the court by litigants. It does not concern legal advice provided for cases that are not brought before the court.

Total

      / NA / NAP

In criminal cases

      / NA / NAP

In other than criminal cases

      / NA / NAP

Please specify when appropriate:

20.1      If your system provides the granting of legal aid for non-litigious cases or cases not brought to court, please indicate the number of cases for which legal aid has been granted.  If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (Modified question)

Total

      / NA / NAP

In criminal cases

      / NA / NAP

In other than criminal cases

      / NA / NAP

21.          In criminal cases, can individuals who do not have sufficient financial means be

assisted by a free of charge (or financed by a public budget) lawyer? Please, specify in the comment box below.

Accused individuals                                                 Yes              No

Victims                                                                   Yes              No

If yes, please specify:

22.          If yes, are individuals free to choose their lawyer within the framework of the legal aid system?

       Yes              No

23.          Does your country have an income and assets evaluation for granting legal aid to the

            applicant. If you have such a system but no data available, please indicate NA. If you do not have such a system, please indicate NAP.

for criminal cases

 Yes

amount of annual income (if possible for one person) in €             NA NAP

amount of assets in €         NA NAP

No

for other than criminal cases?

 Yes

amount of annual income (if possible for one person) in €             NA NAP

amount of assets in €         NA NAP

No

Please indicate any comment to explain the figures provided above:

Please indicate if any other criteria are taken into account for the granting of legal aid:

24.          In other than criminal cases, is it possible to refuse legal aid for lack of merit of the case (for example for frivolous action or no chance of success)?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please explain the exact criteria for denying legal aid:

25.          In other than criminal cases, is the decision to grant or refuse legal aid taken by:

 the court?

 an authority external to the court?

 a mixed authority (court and external bodies)?

26.          Is there a private system of legal expense insurance enabling individuals (this does not concern companies or other legal persons) to finance court proceedings?

                    Yes

        No

If appropriate, please inform about the current development of such insurances in your country; is it a growing phenomenon?

27.          Can judicial decisions direct how legal costs, paid by the parties during the procedure, will be shared, in :

Yes

No

criminal cases?

other than criminal cases?

***

B.1       You can indicate below:

-              any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

-               the characteristics of your legal aid system and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

Please indicate the sources for answering questions 20 and 23:

2.2 Users of the courts and victims

2.2.1 Rights of the users and victims

28.          Are there official internet sites/portals (e.g. Ministry of Justice, etc.) for which the general public may have free of charge access to the following:

§  legal texts (e.g. codes, laws, regulations, etc.)?      Yes              No

Internet address(es):            

§  case-law of the higher court/s?                              Yes              No

Internet address(es):            

§  other documents (e.g. downloadable forms, online registration)?              Yes  No

Internet address(es):            

The websites mentioned could appear in particular on the internet website of the CEPEJ. Please specify what documents and information the addresses for “other documents” include:

29.          Is there an obligation to provide information to the parties concerning the foreseeable timeframes of proceedings?

                    Yes

        No

        Yes only in some specific situations

If yes only in some specific situations, please specify:

30.          Is there a public and free-of-charge specific information system to inform and to help victims of crime?

                    Yes

        No

If yes, please specify:

31.          Are there special favourable arrangements to be applied, during judicial proceedings, to the following categories of vulnerable persons:

This question does not concern the police investigation phase of the procedure and does not concern compensation mechanisms for victims of criminal offences, which are addressed under questions 32 to 34.

Information mechanism

Special arrangements in hearings

Other

specific arrangements

Victims of sexual violence/rape

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Victims of terrorism

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Minors (witnesses or victims)

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Victims of domestic violence

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Ethnic minorities

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Disabled persons

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Juvenile offenders

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

Other (e.g. victims of human trafficking, forced marriage, sexual mutilation)

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

 Yes   No

If “other vulnerable person” and/or “other special arrangements”, please specify:

31.1      Is it possible for minors to be a party to a judicial proceeding:

                    Yes

                    No

            If yes, please specify which procedure can be concerned (civil, criminal, administrative/normal or accelerated procedure) and at which conditions (can children benefit from legal aid, be represented by a lawyer, etc.) :

32.          Does your country allocate compensation for victims of crime?

                    Yes

        No

If yes, for which kind of offences?

33.          If yes, does this compensation comes from: (Modified question)

 a public fund?

 damages and interests to be paid by the person responsible?

 a private fund?

            Please indicate if a court decision is necessary in the framework of this compensation procedure:

34.          Are there studies that evaluate the recovery rate of the damages awarded by courts to victims?

                    Yes

        No

If yes, please illustrate with available data concerning the recovery rate, the title of the studies, the frequency of the studies and the coordinating body:

35.          Do public prosecutors have a specific role with respect to the victims (protection and assistance)?

                    Yes

        No

If yes, please specify:

36.          Do victims of crime have the right to dispute a public prosecutor’s decision to discontinue a case?

Please verify the consistency of your answer with that of question 105 regarding the possibility for a public prosecutor "to discontinue a case without needing a  decision by a judge".

                    Yes

        No

        NAP (the public prosecutor cannot decide to discontinue a case on his/her own. A decision by a judge is needed).

If necessary, please specify:

2.2.2 Confidence of citizens in their justice system

37.          Is there a system for compensating users in the following circumstances:

·                           excessive length of proceedings?    Yes  No

·                           non-execution of court decisions?   Yes  No

·                           wrongful arrest?                               Yes  No

·                           wrongful condemnation?                 Yes  No

Where appropriate, please give details on the compensation procedure, the number of cases, the result of the procedures and the existing mechanism for calculating the compensation (e.g. the amount per day for unjustified detentions or convictions):

38.           Did your country implement surveys aimed at legal professionals and court users to measure their trust in justice and their satisfaction with the services delivered by the judicial system? If yes, how frequently and up to what level? (Modified question)

No

Yes/Periodicity

Yes/Level

(Satisfaction) surveys aimed at judges

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

(Satisfaction) surveys aimed at court staff

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

(Satisfaction) surveys aimed at public prosecutors

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

(Satisfaction) surveys aimed at lawyers

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

(Satisfaction) surveys aimed at the parties

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

 (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at other court users (e.g. jurors, witnesses, experts, interpreters, representatives of governmental agencies)

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

(Satisfaction) surveys aimed at victims

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

Other not mentioned

 Annual

 National level /  court level

 Other regular

 National level /  court level

 Ad hoc

 National level /  court level

Please, indicate the references and links to the satisfaction surveys you mentioned above:

39.         

40.          Is there a national or local procedure for making complaints about the functioning of the judicial system? (for example the handling of a case by a judge or the duration of a proceeding)

 Yes

 No

41.          Please specify certain aspects of this procedure:

Authority responsible for dealing with the complaint

Time limit for dealing with the complaint

Number of complaints

Compensations amount granted to users

Court concerned

 Yes    No

 Yes    No

……… NA                 NAP

……… NA                 NAP

Higher court

 Yes    No

 Yes    No

……… NA                 NAP

……… NA                 NAP

Ministry of Justice

 Yes    No

 Yes    No

……… NA                 NAP

……… NA                 NAP

Council of the Judiciary

 Yes    No

 Yes    No

……… NA                 NAP on

……… NA                 NAP

Other external bodies (e.g. Ombudsman)

 Yes    No

 Yes    No

……… NA                 NAP Non

……… NA                 NAP

If possible, please give information concerning the efficiency of this complaint procedure:

Please indicate any useful comment:

3. Organisation of the court system

3.1 Courts


42.          Number of courts considered as legal entities (administrative structures) and geographic locations. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

42.1 First instance courts of general jurisdiction

(legal entities)

      / NA / NAP

42.2 First instance specialised courts (legal entities)

      / NA / NAP

42.3 All the courts (geographic locations) (this includes 1st instance courts of general jurisdiction, first instance specialised courts, all second instance courts and courts of appeal and all supreme courts)

      / NA / NAP

43.          Number (legal entities) of first instance specialised courts (or specific judicial order). If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Total (must be the same as the data given under question 42.2)

      / NA / NAP

Commercial courts (excluded insolvency courts)

      / NA / NAP

Insolvency courts

Labour courts

      / NA / NAP

Family courts

      / NA / NAP

Rent and tenancies courts

      / NA / NAP

Enforcement of criminal sanctions courts

      / NA / NAP

Fight against terrorism, organised crime and corruption

      / NA / NAP

Internet related disputes

      / NA / NAP

Administrative courts

      / NA / NAP

Insurance and / or social welfare courts

      / NA / NAP

Military courts

      / NA / NAP

Other specialised 1st instance courts

      / NA / NAP

If “other specialised 1st instance courts”, please specify:

44.          Is there a foreseen change in the structure of courts [for example a reduction of the number of courts (geographic locations) or a change in the powers of courts]?

                    Yes

        No

If yes, please specify:

45.          Number of first instance courts (geographic locations) competent for a case concerning:

a debt collection for small claims

      / NA / NAP

a dismissal

      / NA / NAP

a robbery

      / NA / NAP


If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Please give the definition for small claims:

Please indicate the value of a small claim:

***

            Please indicate the sources for answering questions 42, 43 and 45:

3.2 Judges and non-judge staff

Please make sure that public prosecutors and their staff are excluded from the following figures (they will be part of questions 55-60). If a distinction between staff attached to judges and staff attached to prosecutors cannot be made, please indicate it clearly.

Please indicate the number of posts that are actually filled at the date of reference and not the theoretical budgetary posts.

46.          Number of professional judges sitting in courts (if possible on 31 December 2014).

If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

 

            (please give the information in full-time equivalent and for permanent posts actually filled for all types of courts - general jurisdiction and specialised courts )

Total

Males

Females

Total number of professional judges (1 + 2 + 3)

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

1. Number of first instance professional judges

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

2. Number of second  instance (court of appeal) professional judges

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

3. Number of supreme court professional judges

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

Please provide any useful comment for interpreting the data above :

47.              Number of court presidents (professional judges). If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Total

Males

Females

Total number of court presidents (1 + 2 + 3)

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

1. Number of first instance court presidents

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

2. Number of second instance (court of appeal) court presidents

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

3. Number of supreme court presidents

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

48.          Number of professional judges sitting in courts on an occasional basis and who are paid as such (if possible on 31 December 2014):

Gross figure

      / NA / NAP

If possible, in full-time equivalent

      / NA / NAP

If necessary, please provide comments to explain the answer under question 48:

49.          Number of non-professional judges who are not remunerated but who can possibly receive a simple defrayal of costs (if possible on 31 December 2014) (e.g. lay judges and “juges consulaires”, but not arbitrators and persons sitting in a jury):

Gross figure

      / NA / NAP

49.1        If such non-professional judges exist in first instance in your country, please specify for which types of cases: (New question)

Yes

No

Echevinage

in criminal law cases 

  - severe criminal cases 

  - misdemeanour and/or minor criminal cases

In family law cases 

in civil cases

In labour law cases 

In social law cases 

In commercial law cases 

In insolvency cases 

Other 

If other, please specify:

50.          Does your judicial system include trial by jury with the participation of citizens?

        Yes

        No

If yes, for which type of case(s)?

51.          Number of citizens who were involved in such juries for the year of reference:

                    NA   NAP

52.          Number of non-judge staff who are working in courts (if possible on 31 December 2014) (this data should not include the staff working for public prosecutors; see question 60) If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (modified question)

(please give the information in full-time equivalent and for permanent posts actually filled)

Total non-judge staff working in courts (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5)

Total/      NA / NAP/

Male/     

 NA /

NAP/

Female/     

NA / NAP/

1. Rechtspfleger (or similar bodies) with judicial or quasi-judicial tasks having autonomous competence and whose decisions could be subject to appeal 

Total/      NA / NAP/

Male/     

NA /

NAP/

Female/     

NA / NAP/

2. Non-judge staff whose task is to assist the judges such as registrars (case file preparation, assistance during the hearing, court recording, helping to draft the decisions)

Total/      NA / NAP/

Male/     

NA /

NAP/

Female/     

NA /

NAP/

3. Staff in charge of different administrative tasks and of the management of the courts (human resources management, material and equipment management, including computer systems, financial and budgetary management, training management)

Total/      NA / NAP/

Male/     

NA /

NAP/

Female/     

NA /

NAP/

4. Technical staff        

Total/      NA / NAP/

Male/     

NA /

NAP/

Female/     

NA /

NAP/

5. Other non-judge staff

Total/      NA / NAP/

Hommes/      NA /

NAP/

Femmes/     

NA /

NAP/

If “other non-judge staff”, please specify:

53.          If there are Rechtspfleger (or similar bodies) in your judicial system, please describe briefly their status and duties:

54.          Have the courts delegated certain services, which fall within their powers, to private providers (e.g. IT services, training of staff, security, archives, cleaning)?

        Yes

        No

If yes, please specify:

***

C.1       You can indicate below:

-       any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

-       the characteristics of your judicial system and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

            Please indicate the sources for answering questions 46, 47, 48, 49 and 52

3.3 Public prosecutors and staff

55.          Number of public prosecutors (on 31 December 2014). If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

(please give the information in full-time equivalent and for permanent posts actually filled, for all types of courts – ordinary and specialised jurisdictions)

Total

Males

Females

Total number of prosecutors (1 + 2 + 3)

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

1. Number of prosecutors at first instance level

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

2. Number of prosecutors at second  instance (court of appeal) level

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

3. Number of prosecutors at supreme court level

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

Please indicate any useful comment for interpreting the data above:

56.  Number of heads of prosecution offices. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Total

Males

Females

Total number of heads of prosecution offices (1 + 2 + 3)

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

1. Number of heads of prosecution offices at first instance level

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

2. Number of heads of prosecution offices at second instance (court of appeal) level

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

3. Number of heads of prosecution offices at supreme court level

      / NA

      / NA

      / NA

 NAP

Please provide any useful comment for interpreting the data above :

57.          Do other persons have similar duties to public prosecutors?

        Yes      Number (full-time equivalent)       / NA

                    No

58.          If yes, please specify their title and function:

59.       If yes, is their number included in the number of public prosecutors that you have indicated under question 55?

        Yes     

                    No

59.1      Do prosecution offices have specially trained prosecutors indomestic violence and sexual violence  etc.?

        Yes

                    No

60.          Number of staff (non-public prosecutors) attached to the public prosecution service (if possible on 31 December 2014) (without the number of non-judge staff, see question 52) (in full-time equivalent and for permanent posts actually filled).

                    NA         men /      women

***

C.2       You can indicate below:

-       any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

-       the characteristics of your judicial system and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

            Please indicate the sources for answering questions 55, 56 and 60

3.4 Management of the court budget

61.          Who is entrusted with responsibilities related to the budget within the court?

Preparation of the budget

Arbitration and allocation

Day to day management of the budget

Evaluation and control of the use of the budget

Management Board 

Court President  

Court administrative director 

Head of the court clerk office

Other

If “other”, please specify:

3.5 Use of Technologies in courts

For these questions, please refer to the specific document CEPEJ (2015)5 and its explanatory note, CEPEJ (2015)6.

3.6 Performance and evaluation

National policies applied in courts and public prosecutor services

66.  Are quality standards determined for the judicial system (are there quality systems for the judiciary and/or judicial quality policies)? (former question 78)

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

67.  Do you have specialised court staff that is entrusted with these quality standards? (former question 79)

                    Yes

                    No

68.  Is there a national system to evaluate the overall (smooth) functioning of courts on the basis of an evaluation plan agreed beforehand? (former question 82)

This question does not concern the specific evaluation of performance indicators.

                    Yes

                    No

Please specify the frequency of this evaluation :

69.  Is there a system for monitoring and evaluating the performance of the public prosecution service? (former question 83)

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please give further details:

Performance and evaluation of courts

Measuring courts’ activity

70.  Do you have, within the courts, a regular monitoring system of court activities concerning: (former question 68)

The monitoring system aims to assess the day-to-day activity of the courts (namely, what the courts produce) thanks in particular to data collections and statistical analysis (see also questions 80 and 81).

 Number of incoming cases?

 Number of decisions delivered?

 Number of postponed cases?

 Length of proceedings (timeframes)?

 age of cases?

 Other?

If “other”, please specify:

71.  Do you monitor backlogs and cases that are not processed within a reasonable timeframe for: (former question 80)

civil law cases?                                  Yes No

criminal law cases                              Yes No

administrative law cases?                  Yes No

72.  Do you have an evaluation process to monitor waiting time during court procedures? (former question 81)

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

      

73.  Do you have a system to evaluate regularly the activity (in terms of performance and output) of each court? (former question 69)

The evaluation system refers to the performance of the court systems with prospective concerns, using indicators and targets. The evaluation may be of more qualitative nature. It does not refer to the evaluation of the overall (good) functioning of the court (see question 68).

                    Yes. If yes, what is the frequency?

                    No

Please specify:

           

73.1. Is this evaluation of the court activity used for the later allocation of means to this court? (new question)

        Yes

                    No

Performance targets at court level

  1. Are there performance targets defined at the level of the court? (former question 74)

                    Yes

                    No

  1. Please specify the main targets applied to the courts: (former question 76)

  1. Who is responsible for setting the targets for the courts? (former question 75)

 Executive power (for example the Ministry of Justice)

 Legislative power

 Judicial power (for example High Judicial Council, Higher Court)

 President of the court

 Other

If “other”, please specify:

Performance and quality indicators at court level (mainly to assess the achievement of defined objectives)

  1. Concerning court activities, have you defined performance and quality indicators (if no, please skip to question 79) (former question 70)

                    Yes

                    No

  1. Please select the main performance and quality indicators that have been defined: (former question 71)

 incoming cases

 length of proceedings (timeframes)

 closed cases

 pending cases and backlogs

 productivity of judges and court staff

 percentage of cases that are processed by a single sitting judge

 enforcement of penal decisions

 satisfaction of court staff

 satisfaction of users (regarding the services delivered by the courts)

 judicial quality and organisational quality of the courts

 costs of the judicial procedures

 number of appeals

 other:

If “other”, please specify:

Performance evaluation of courts activity

  1. Who is responsible for evaluating the performance of the courts (see questions 69 to 76)? (multiple options possible) (former question 77)

 High Council of judiciary

 Ministry of Justice

 Inspection authority

 Supreme Court

 External audit body

 Other

If “other”, please specify:

Information regarding courts activity

  1. Is there a centralised institution that is responsible for collecting statistical data regarding the functioning of the courts and judiciary? (former question 66)

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please indicate the name and the address of this institution:

80.1      Does this institution publish statistics on the functioning of each court on the internet: (former question 66.1)

        Yes

        No, only in an intranet website

        No

  1. Are individual courts required to prepare an annual activity report (that includes, for example, data on the number of cases processed or pending cases, the number of judges and administrative staff, targets and assessment of the activity)? (former question 67)

                    Yes

        No

81.1 If yes, please specify in which forms this report is released : (new question)

        Internet                                               

                    Intranet website

                    Paper distribution

Courts administration

  1. Is there a process or structure of dialogue between the public prosecutor service and courts as regards the way cases are presented before courts (for example the organisation, number and planning of hearings, duty periods for urgent cases, selection of simplified modes of prosecution…) (new question)

        Yes

                    No

If no, please specify:

82.1 Is there a dialogue structure between lawyers and courts as regards the way cases are presented before courts (e.g. organisation, number and planning of hearings, duty periods for urgent cases, circuits procedure and case management) (new question)

        Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify :

Performance and evaluation of judges

  1. Are there quantitative performance targets (for instance a number of cases to be addressed in a month) defined for each judge? (former question 72)

                    Yes

                    No

83.1Who is responsible for setting the targets for each judge? (modified question) (former question 73)

 Executive power (for example the Ministry of Justice)

 Legislative power

 Judicial power (for example the High Judicial Council, Supreme Court)

 President of the court

 Other

If “other”, please specify:

***

C.4       You can indicate below:

§  any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

§  the characteristics of your court monitoring and evaluation systems

4. Fair trial

4.1 Principles

84.          Percentage of first instance criminal in absentia judgments (cases in which the suspect is not attending the hearing in person nor represented by a lawyer)?

      / NA / NAP

85.          Is there a procedure to effectively challenge a judge if a party considers that the judge is not impartial?

                    Yes      Number of successful challenges (in a year):        / NA

                    No

86.          Is there in your country a monitoring system for the violations related to Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights? (modified question)

For civil procedures (non-enforcement):         Yes             No

For civil procedures (timeframe):                    Yes             No

For criminal procedures (timeframe):              Yes             No

Please, specify what are the terms and conditions of this monitoring system (information related to violations at the State/courts level; implementation of internal systems to remedy the established violation; implementation of internal systems to prevent other violations (that are similar) and if possible to measure an evolution of the established violations:

Please, specify the sources:

***

D.1       You can indicate below any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

4.2 Timeframes of proceedings

4.2.1 General information

87.       Are there specific procedures for urgent matters as regards:

civil cases?                             Yes No

criminal cases?                       Yes No

administrative cases?             Yes No

 There is no specific procedure

If yes, please specify:

88.       Are there simplified procedures for:

civil cases? (small disputes)               Yes No

criminal cases? (small offences)         Yes No

administrative cases?             Yes No

 There is no simplified procedure

If yes, please specify:

88.1.     For these simplified procedures, may judges deliver an oral judgement with a written order and             dispense with a full reasoned judgement?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify which types of procedures are concerned by this possibility:

                                                                                                

89.          Do courts and lawyers have the possibility to conclude agreements on arrangements for processing cases (presentation of files, decisions on timeframes for lawyers to submit their conclusions and on dates of hearings)?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify: 

4.2.2 Case flow management and timeframes of judicial proceedings

The national correspondents are invited to pay special attention to the quality of the answers to questions 91 to 102 regarding case flow management and timeframes of judicial proceedings. The CEPEJ agreed that the subsequent data would be processed and published only if answers from a significant number of member states – taking into account the data presented in the previous report – are given, enabling a useful comparison between the systems.

90.

91.       First instance courts: number of other than criminal law cases.

If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (Modified question)

Pending cases on 1 Jan.‘14

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec.‘14

Total of other than criminal law  cases (1+2+3+4)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

1. Civil (and commercial) litigious cases (including litigious enforcement cases and if possible without administrative law cases, see category 3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2. Non litigious cases (2.1+2.2+2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2.1. General civil (and commercial) non-litigious cases, e.g. uncontested payment orders, request for a change of name, non-litigious enforcement cases etc. (if possible without administrative law cases, see category 3; without registry cases and other cases, see categories 2.2 and 2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2.2. Registry cases (2.2.1+2.2.2+2.2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

  2.2.1. Non litigious land registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

300

  2.2.2 Non-litigious  business registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

NAP

  2.2.3. Other registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

NAP

2.3. Other non-litigious cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

3. Administrative law cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

4. Other cases (e.g. insolvency registry cases)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Note 1: the cases mentioned in categories 2.2.1. and 2.2.2. (land registry, business registry) should be presented separately in the table. The cases mentioned in category 3 (administrative law cases) should also be separately mentioned for the countries which have specialised administrative courts or separate administrative law procedures or are able to distinguish in another way between administrative law cases and civil law cases.

Note 2: please check if the figures submitted are (horizontally and vertically) consistent. Horizontal consistent data means that: "(pending cases on 1 January 2014 + incoming cases) – resolved cases" should give the correct number of pending cases on 31 December 2014. If this horizontal consistency is not possible due to joined cases, please specify.

Vertical consistency of data means that the sum of the individual case categories 1 to 4 should reflect the total number of other than criminal law cases.

92.  If courts deal with “civil (and commercial) non-litigious cases”, please indicate the case categories included:

93.  If “other cases”, please indicate the case categories included:

94.  First instance courts: number of criminal law cases. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Pending cases on 1 Jan. 2014

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec. 2014

Total of criminal cases (5+6)

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

5. Severe criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

6. Misdemeanour and / or minor criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Note: please check if the figures submitted are (horizontally and vertically) consistent. Horizontal consistency data means that: "(pending cases on 1 January 2014 + incoming cases) – resolved cases" should give the correct number of pending cases on 31 December 2014. If this horizontal consistency is not possible due to joined cases, please specify.

Vertical consistency of data means that the sum of categories 8 and 9 for criminal cases should reflect the total number of criminal cases.

95.  To differentiate between misdemeanour / minor offences and serious offences, and ensure the consistency of the responses between different systems, the CEPEJ invites to classify as misdemeanour / minor all offences for which it is not possible to pronounce a sentence of deprivation of liberty. Conversely, severe offenses should be classified all offenses punishable by a deprivation of liberty (arrest and detention, imprisonment). If you cannot make such a distinction, please indicate the categories of cases reported in the category "serious offences" and cases reported in the category "minor offences":

96.  Comments on questions 90 to 95 (specific situation in your country e.g. NA-answers and the calculation of the total number of other than criminal law cases, differences in horizontal consistency etc.)

97.  Second instance courts (appeal): Number of “other than criminal law” cases.

If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (Modified question)

Pending cases on 1 Jan.‘14

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec.‘14

Total of other than criminal law  cases (1+2+3+4)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

1. Civil (and commercial) litigious cases (including litigious enforcement cases and if possible without administrative law cases, see category 3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2. Non litigious cases (2.1+2.2+2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2.1. General civil (and commercial) non-litigious cases, e.g. uncontested payment orders, request for a change of name, non-litigious enforcement cases etc. (if possible without administrative law cases, see category 3; without registration cases and other cases, see categories 2.2 and 2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2.2. Registry cases (2.2.1+2.2.2+2.2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

  2.2.1. Non litigious land registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

300

  2.2.2 Non-litigious  business registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

NAP

  2.2.3. Other registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

NAP

2.3. Other non-litigious cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

3. Administrative law cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

4. Other cases (e.g. insolvency registry cases)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP


98.  Second instance courts (appeal): Number of criminal law cases. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Pending cases on 1 Jan.‘14

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec.‘14

Total of criminal cases (5+6)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

5. Severe criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

6. Misdemeanour and / or minor criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Comments:

99.          Highest instance courts (Supreme Court): Number of “other than criminal law” cases:

If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. (Modified question)

Pending cases on 1 Jan.‘14

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec.‘14

Total of other than criminal law  cases (1+2+3+4)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

1. Civil (and commercial) litigious cases (including litigious enforcement cases and if possible without administrative law cases, see category 3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2. Non litigious cases (2.1+2.2+2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2.1. General civil (and commercial) non-litigious cases, e.g. uncontested payment orders, request for a change of name, non-litigious enforcement cases etc. (if possible without administrative law cases, see category 3; without registration cases and other cases, see categories 2.2 and 2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

2.2. Registry cases (2.2.1+2.2.2+2.2.3)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

  2.2.1. Non litigious land registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

300

  2.2.2 Non-litigious  business registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

NAP

  2.2.3. Other registry cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

NAP

2.3. Other non-litigious cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

3. Administrative law cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

4. Other cases (e.g. insolvency registry cases)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

99.1        At the level of the Higher court, is there a procedure of manifest inadmissibility?

        Yes. If yes, please indicate the number of cases closed by this procedure?

                    No

100.        Highest instance courts (Supreme Courts): Number of criminal law cases. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Pending cases on 1 Jan.‘14

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec.‘14

Total of criminal cases (5+6)

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

5. Severe criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

6. Misdemeanour and / or minor criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Comments:

101.        Number of litigious divorce case, employment dismissal case, insolvency, robbery case and intentional homicide case received and processed by first instance courts. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Pending cases on 1 Jan.‘14

Incoming cases

Resolved cases

Pending cases on 31 Dec‘14

Litigious divorce case

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Employment dismissal case

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Insolvency

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Robbery case

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Intentional homicide

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

102.        Average length of proceedings, in days (from the date the application for judicial review is lodged). If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

The average length of proceedings has to be calculated from the date the application for judicial review is lodged to the date the judgment is made, without taking into account the enforcement procedure.

% of decisions subject to appeal

% of cases pending for more than 3 years

Average length in 1st instance (in days)

Average length in 2nd instance (in days)

Average length in 3rd instance (in days)

Average total length of the total procedure (in days)

Litigious divorce case

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Employment dismissal case

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Insolvency

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

NA / NAP

Robbery case

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

Intentional homicide

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

103.        Where appropriate, please indicate the specific procedure as regards divorce cases (litigious and non-litigious):


104.        How is the length of proceedings calculated for the five case categories? Please give a description of the calculation method.

105.        Role and powers of the public prosecutor in the criminal procedure (multiple options possible):

 to conduct or supervise police investigation

 to conduct investigations

 when necessary, to request investigation measures from the judge

 to charge

 to present the case in the court

 to propose a sentence to the judge

 to appeal

 to supervise the enforcement procedure

 to discontinue a case without needing a decision by a judge (ensure consistency with question 36!)

 to end the case by imposing or negotiating a penalty or measure without requiring a judicial decision

 other significant powers

If “other significant powers”, please specify:

106.        Does the public prosecutor also have a role in civil and/or administrative cases?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

106.1    Does the public prosecutor also have a role in insolvency cases?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

107.        Case proceedings managed by the public prosecutor

Total number of 1st instance criminal cases

If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Received by the public prosecutor

Cases discontinued by the public prosecutor (see 108 below)

Cases concluded by a penalty or a measure imposed or negotiated by the public prosecutor

Cases charged by the public prosecutor before the courts

Total number of 1st instance criminal cases

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

     

NA / NAP

107.1If the guilty plea procedures exist, how many cases were brought to court by the prosecutor through this procedure?

If possible, please distinguish the number of guilty plea procedure:

- before the court case:       /NA / NAP

- during the court case:       /NA / NAP


108.        Total cases which were discontinued by the public prosecutor. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Total cases which were discontinued by the public prosecutor (1+2+3)

     

NA / NAP

1. Discontinued by the public prosecutor because the offender could not be identified

     

NA / NAP

2. Discontinued by the public prosecutor due to the lack of an established offence or a specific legal situation

     

NA / NAP

3. Discontinued by the public prosecutor for reasons of opportunity

     

NA / NAP

109.        Do the figures include traffic offence cases?

                    Yes

                    No

***

D.2       You can indicate below:

§  any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

§  the characteristics of your system concerning timeframes of proceedings and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

Please indicate the sources for answering questions 91, 94, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 107 and 108.

5. Career of judges and public prosecutors

5.1  Recruitment and promotion

110.        How are judges recruited?

 mainly through a competitive exam (for instance, following a university degree in law)

 mainly through a recruitment procedure for legal professionals with long-time working experience in the legal field (for example lawyers)

 a combination of both (competitive exam and working experience)

 other

If “other”, please specify:

110.1    Are there specific provisions for facilitating gender equality within the framework of the procedure for recruiting judges?

                    Yes

                    No

If “yes”, please specify:

111.        Authority(ies) in charge

Are judges initially/at the beginning of their career recruited and nominated by: (ex. 102.1)

This question strictly concerns the authority entrusted with the decision to recruit (not the authority formally responsible for the nomination if different from the former).

 an authority made up of judges only?

 an authority made up of non-judges only?

 an authority made up of judges and non-judges?

Please indicate the name of the authority(ies) involved in the whole procedure of recruitment and nomination of judges. If there are several authorities, please describe their respective roles:

112.        Is the same authority (Q 111) competent for the promotion of judges?

                    Yes

                    No

112.1    Are there specific provisions for facilitating gender equality within the framework of the procedure for promoting judges?

                    Yes

                    No

If “yes”, please specify:

113. What is the procedure for judges to be promoted? (multiple answers) (Modified question)

        Competitive test / Exam

        Other procedure (interview or other)

        No special procedure

Please specify how the promotion of judges is organised (especially if there is no competition or examination):

113.1 Please indicate the criteria used for the promotion of a judge? (multiple answers possible) (Modified question)

        Years of experience

        Professional skills (and/or qualitative performance)

        Performance (quantitative)

        Assessment results

        Subjective criteria (e.g. integrity, reputation)

        Other

        No entry criteria

Please specify any useful comment regarding the criteria (especially if you have checked   the box “performance or “other”):

114.Is there a system of qualitative individual assessment of the judges’ work?

                    Yes. Please indicate the frequency

                    No

115.Is the status of prosecution services: (Modified question)

 statutory independent?

 under the authority of the Minister of justice or another central authority?

 other?

            When appropriate, please specify the objective guarantees of this independence (transfer, appointment...):

115.1Does the law or another regulation prevent specific instructions to prosecute or not, addressed to a prosecutor in a court. (New question)

                    Yes.             No

If yes, please specify:

116.How are public prosecutors recruited?

 mainly through a competitive exam (for instance, following a university degree in law)

 mainly through a recruitment procedure for legal professionals with long-time working experience in the legal field (for example lawyers)

 a combination of both (competitive exam and working experience)

 other

If “other”, please specify:

117.Authority(ies) in charge

Are public prosecutors initially/at the beginning of their career recruited by:

This question concerns the authority entrusted with the responsibility to recruit only (not the authority formally responsible for the nomination if different from the former).

 an authority composed of public prosecutors only?

 an authority composed of non-public prosecutors only?

 an authority composed of public prosecutors and non-public prosecutors?

Please indicate the name of the authority(ies) involved in the whole procedure of recruitment and nomination of public prosecutors. If there are several authorities, please describe their respective roles:

117.1    Are there specific provisions for facilitating gender equality within the framework of the procedure for recruiting prosecutors?

                    Yes

                    No

If “yes”, please specify:

118.Is the same authority (Q.117) formally responsible for the promotion of public prosecutors?

                    Yes

                    No

If no, please specify which authority is competent for promoting public prosecutors:

119. What is the procedure for prosecutors to be promoted? (multiple answers) (Modified question)

        Competitive test / Exam

        Other procedure (interview or other)

        No special procedure

Please, specify the procedure (especially if it is a procedure different from a competitive test or an exam):

                                     

119.1    Are there specific provisions for facilitating gender equality within the framework of the procedure for promoting prosecutors?

                    Yes

                    No

If “yes”, please specify:

119.2  Please indicate the criteria used for the promotion of a prosecutor: (Modified question)

        Years of experience

        Professional skills (and/or qualitative performance)

        Performance (quantitative)

        Assessment results

        Subjective criteria (e.g. integrity, reputation)

        Other

        No entry criteria

Please, specify any useful comment regarding the criteria (especially if you have checked the box “performance” or “other”):

120.Is there a system of qualitative individual assessment of the public prosecutors’ work?

                    Yes

                    No

121.Are judges appointed to office for an undetermined period (i.e. "for life" = until the official age of retirement)?

                    Yes. If yes, please indicate the compulsory retirement age

                    No

If yes, are there exceptions (e.g. dismissal as a disciplinary sanction)? Please specify:

121.1    Can a judge be transferred (to another court) without his/her consent:

 For disciplinary reasons

 For organisational reasons

 For other reasons. Please specify modalities and safeguards:

 NAP

122.Is there a probation period for judges (e.g. before being appointed "for life")? If yes, how long is this period? If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

                    Yes      Duration of the probation period (in years):      

                    No

        NAP

123.Are public prosecutors appointed to office for an undetermined period (i.e. "for life" = until the official age of retirement)?

                    Yes. If yes, please indicate the compulsory retirement age

                    No

If yes, are there exceptions (e.g. dismissal as a disciplinary sanction)? Please specify:

124.Is there a probation period for public prosecutors? If yes, how long is this period?

NA / NAP

       Yes      Duration of the probation period (in years):      

       No

125.If the mandate for judges is not for an undetermined period (see question 121), what is the length of the mandate (in years)? Is it renewable?

 NA /  NAP

For judges :

Length of the mandate (in years):                Renewable?  Yes       No

126.If the mandate for public prosecutors is not for an undetermined period (see question 123), what is the length of the mandate (in years)? Is it renewable?

 NA /  NAP

For public prosecutors :

Length of the mandate (in years):                Renewable?  Yes       No

***

E.1       You can indicate below:

§  any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

§  the characteristics of the selection and appointment procedure of judges and public prosecutors and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

5.2 Training

127.Training of judges:

Compulsory

Optional

No training offered

Initial training (e.g. attend a judicial school, traineeship in the court)

General in-service training

In-service training for specialised judicial functions (e.g. judge for economic or administrative issues)

In-service training for management functions of the court (e.g. court president)

In-service training for the use of computer facilities in courts

128.Frequency of the in-service training of judges : (Modified question)

Regularly (for example every year)

Punctually (as needed)

No training proposed

General in-service training

In-service training for specialised judicial functions (e.g. judge for economic or administrative issues)

In-service training for management functions of the court (e.g. court president)

In-service training for the use of computer facilities in courts

Please indicate any information on the periodicity of the continuous training of judges:


129.Training of public prosecutors:

Compulsory

Optional

No training proposed

Initial training

General in-service training

In-service training for specialised functions (e.g. public prosecutor specialised on organised crime)

In-service training for management functions of the court (e.g. Head of prosecution office, manager)

In-service training for the use of computer facilities in office

130.Frequency of the in-service training of public prosecutors: (Modified question)

Regularly (for example every year)

Punctually (as needed)

No training proposed

General in-service training

In-service training for specialised functions (e.g. public prosecutor specialised on organised crime)

In-service training for management functions of the court (e.g. Head of prosecution office, manager)

In-service training for the use of computer facilities in office

Please indicate any information on the periodicity of the in-service training of prosecutors:

131.Do you have public training institutions for judges and / or prosecutors? If yes, what is the budget of such institution(s)?

Initial training only

Continuous training only

Initial and continuous training

2014 budget of the institution, in €

One institution for judges

            NA / NAP

One institution for prosecutors

            NA / NAP

One single institution for both judges and prosecutors

            NA / NAP

If your judicial training institutions do not correspond to these criteria, please specify it:

 

131.1 If there is no initial training for judges and/or prosecutors in such institutions, please indicate briefly how these judges and/or prosecutors are recruited and trained ?

***

E.2       You can indicate below:

§  any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

§  comments regarding the attention given in the curricula to the European Convention on Human Rights and the case law of the Court

§  the characteristics of your training system for judges and public prosecutors and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

5.3 Practice of the profession

132.        Salaries of judges and public prosecutors:

(Modified question)

Gross annual salary, in €, on 31 December 2014

Net annual salary, in €, on 31 December 2014

Gross annual salary, in local currency, on 31 December 2014

Net annual salary, in local currency, on 31 December 2014

First instance professional judge at the beginning of his/her career

          / NA 

          / NA 

          / NA

          / NA

Judge of the Supreme Court or the Highest Appellate Court (please indicate the average salary of a judge at this level, and not the salary of the Court President)

          / NA 

          / NA 

          / NA

          / NA

Public prosecutor at the beginning of his/her career

          / NA 

          / NA 

          / NA

          / NA

Public prosecutor of the Supreme Court or the Highest Appellate Instance (please indicate the average salary of a public prosecutor at this level, and not the salary of the Attorney General).

          / NA 

          / NA 

          / NA

          / NA

Comments:

Sources:

133.        Do judges and public prosecutors have additional benefits?

Judges

Public prosecutors

Reduced taxation

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Special pension

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Housing

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Other financial benefit

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

134.        If “other financial benefit”, please specify:

135.        Can judges combine their work with any of the following other functions?

With remuneration

Without remuneration

Teaching

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Research and publication

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Arbitrator

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Consultant

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Cultural function

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Political function

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Other function

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

136.        If rules exist in your country (e.g. authorisation needed to perform these activities), please specify. If “other function”, please specify.

137.        Can public prosecutors combine their work with any of the following other functions?

With remuneration

Without remuneration

Teaching

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Research and publication

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Arbitrator

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Consultant

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Cultural function

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Political function

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

Other

function

 Yes  No

 Yes  No

138.        Please specify existing rules (e.g. authorisation to perform the whole or a part of these activities). If “other function”, please specify:

139.        Productivity bonuses: do judges receive bonuses based on the fulfilment of quantitative objectives in relation to the delivery of judgments (e.g. number of judgments delivered over a given period of time)or cases examination?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify the conditions and possibly the amounts:

***

5.4 Disciplinary procedures

140.        Who is authorised to initiate disciplinary proceedings against judges (multiple options possible)?

 Court users

 Relevant Court or hierarchical superior

 High Court / Supreme Court

 High Judicial Council

 Disciplinary court or body

 Ombudsman

 Parliament

 Executive power

 Other

 This is not possible

If "executive power" and/or "other", please specify:

141.        Who is authorised to initiate disciplinary proceedings against public prosecutors: (multiple options possible):

 Citizens

 Head of the organisational unit or hierarchical superior public prosecutor

 Prosecutor General /State public prosecutor

 Public prosecutorial Council (and Judicial Council)

 Disciplinary court or body

 Ombudsman

 Professional body

 Executive power

 Other?

 This is not possible

If "executive power" and/or "other", please specify:

142.        Which authority has disciplinary power over judges? (multiple options possible)

 Court

 Higher Court / Supreme Court

 Judicial Council

 Disciplinary court or body

 Ombudsman

 Parliament

 Executive power

 Other?

If "executive power" and/or "other", please specify:

143.        Which authority has the disciplinary power over public prosecutors? (multiple options possible):

 Supreme Court

 Head of the organisational unit or hierarchical superior public prosecutor

 Prosecutor General /State public prosecutor

 Public prosecutorial Council (and Judicial Council)

 Disciplinary court or body

 Ombudsman

 Professional body

 Executive power

 Other?

If "executive power" and/or "other", please specify:

144.        Number of disciplinary proceedings initiated against judges and public prosecutors. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

If disciplinary proceedings are undertaken because of several mistakes, please count the proceedings only once and for the main mistake.

Judges

Public prosecutors

Total number (1+2+3+4)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

1. Breach of professional ethics

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

2. Professional  inadequacy

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

3. Criminal offence

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

4. Other

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

If “other”, please specify:

145.        Number of sanctions pronounced in 2014 against judges and public prosecutors. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP.

Judges

Public prosecutors

Total number (total 1 to 9)

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

1. Reprimand

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

2. Suspension

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

3. Withdrawal from cases

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

4. Fine

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

5. Temporary reduction of salary

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

6. Position downgrade

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

7. Transfer to another geographical (court) location

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

8. Dismissal

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

9. Other

      / NA / NAP

      / NA / NAP

If “other”, please specify. If a significant difference exists between the number of disciplinary proceedings and the number of sanctions, please indicate the reasons.

***

E.3       You can indicate below:

§  any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

§  the characteristics of your system concerning disciplinary procedures for judges and public prosecutors and the main reforms that have been implemented over the last two years

Please indicate the sources for answering questions 144 and 145

6. Lawyers

6.1 Status of the profession and training

146.        Total number of lawyers practising in your country:

      / NA / NAP

147.        Does this figure include “legal advisors” who cannot represent their clients in court (for example, some solicitors or in-house counsellors)?

                    Yes

                    No

148.        Number of legal advisors who cannot represent their clients in court:

      / NA NAP

149.        Do lawyers have a monopoly on legal representation in (multiple options are possible):  (

             Civil cases?                       

             Criminal cases - Defendant?

             Criminal cases - Victim?      

             Administrative cases?         

 There is no monopoly

Please, indicate any useful clarifications regarding the content of lawyers’ monopoly:

If there is no monopoly, please specify the organisations or persons that may represent a client before a court (for example a NGO, a family member, a trade union, etc) and for which types of cases:

149.1.   In addition to the functions of legal representation and legal advice, does a lawyer can exercise other activities?

(New question)

Yes

No

Notarial activity

Arbitration / Mediation

Proxy

Property manager

Real estate agent

Other law activities

If other, please specify:

149.2 What are the terms and conditions for exercising the legal profession?

(New question)

Yes

No

Liberal lawyer

Staff lawyer

In-house lawyer

150.        Is the lawyer profession organised through? (multiple options possible)

 a national bar?

 a regional bar?

 a local bar?

151.        Is there a specific initial training and/or exam to enter the profession of lawyer?

                    Yes

                    No

If not, please indicate if there are other specific requirements as regards diplomas or university degrees :

152.        Is there a mandatory general system for lawyers requiring in-service professional training?

                    Yes

                    No

153.        Is the specialisation in some legal fields tied with linked to specific training, levels of qualification, specific diploma or specific authorisations?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

***

F.1       Please indicate the sources for answering questions 146 and 148:

Comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter:

6.2 Practising the profession

154.        Can court users establish easily what the lawyers’ fees will be (i.e. a prior information on the foreseeable amount of fees)?

                    Yes

                    No

155.        Are lawyers' fees freely negotiated?

 Yes

  No

156.        Do laws or bar association standards provide any rules on lawyers’ fees (including those freely negotiated)?

 Yes laws provide rules

 Yes standards of the bar association provide rules

 No, neither laws nor bar association standards provide rules

***

F.2       Useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter:

6.3 Quality standards and disciplinary proceedings

157.        Have quality standards been determined for lawyers?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, what are the quality criteria used?

158.        If yes, who is responsible for formulating these quality standards:

 the bar association?

 the Parliament?

 other?

If “other”, please specify:

159.        Is it possible to file a complaint about :

 the performance of lawyers?

 the amount of fees?

Please specify:

160.        Which authority is responsible for disciplinary procedures?

 The judge

 Ministry of Justice

 a professional authority

 Other

If other, please specify:

161.        Disciplinary proceedings initiated against lawyers. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. If "other", please specify it in the "comment" box below.

 

If disciplinary proceedings are undertaken because of several mistakes, please count the proceedings only once and for the main mistake.

Total number of disciplinary proceedings initiated (1 + 2 + 3 + 4)

      / NA / NAP

1. Breach of professional ethics

      / NA / NAP

2. Professional inadequacy

      / NA / NAP

3. Criminal offence

      / NA / NAP

4. Other

      / NA / NAP

If "other", please specify:

162.        Sanctions pronounced against lawyers. If data is not available, please indicate NA. If the situation is not applicable in your country, please indicate NAP. If "other", please specify it in the "comment" box below.

Total number of sanctions (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5)

      / NA / NAP

1. Reprimand

      / NA / NAP

2. Suspension

      / NA / NAP

3. Withdrawal from cases

      / NA / NAP

4. Fine

      / NA / NAP

5. Other

      / NA / NAP

If "other", please specify. If a significant difference between the number of disciplinary proceedings and the number of sanctions exists, please indicate the reasons.

***

F.3       You can indicate below any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned in this chapter

7. Alternative Dispute Resolution

163.        Does the judicial system provide for judicial mediation procedures? If no please skip to question 168.

Judicial mediation: in this type of mediation, there is always the intervention of a judge or a public prosecutor who facilitates, advises on, decides on or/and approves the procedure. For example, in civil disputes or divorce cases, judges may refer parties to a mediator if they believe that more satisfactory results can be achieved for both parties. In criminal law cases, a public prosecutor can propose that he/she mediates a case between an offender and a victim (for example to establish a compensation agreement).

        Yes

                    No

163.1In some fields, does the judicial system provide for mandatory mediation procedures?

            - before going to court              Yes                  No

            - ordered by a judge in the course of a judicial proceeding         Yes      No

If there are mandatory mediation procedures, please specify which fields are concerned:

164.        Please specify, by type of cases, the organisation of judicial mediation:  

Court annexed mediation

Private mediator

Public authority (other than the court)

Judge

Public prosecutor

Civil and commercial cases

Family law cases (ex. divorce)

Administrative cases

Employment dismissals

Criminal cases

165.        Is there a possibility to receive legal aid for judicial mediation procedures?

                    Yes

                    No

If yes, please specify:

166.        Number of accredited or registered mediators who practice judicial mediation:

      / NA / NAP

167.        Number of judicial mediation procedures.

Total number of cases (total 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5)                             / NA / NAP

1.   civil cases                                                                               / NA / NAP