Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife
and Natural Habitats

Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 125 (2007) of the Standing Committee on trade in invasive
and potentially invasive alien species in Europe


(adopted by the Standing Committee on 29 November 2007)

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the Convention,

Recalling that Article 11 paragraph 2 of the Convention Parties requires Parties to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;

Conscious of the harm that invasive alien species may cause to native species and natural habitats protected under the Convention;

Recalling Recommendation No. 99 (2003) of the Standing Committee on the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species (IAS) and other recommendations concerning trade-related pathways for the introduction of invasive alien species, such as Recommendation No. 77 (1999) and Recommendation No. 91 (2002);

Recalling Decision VI/23 of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its annexed Guiding Principles for the prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts of alien species that threaten ecosystem, habitats or species;

Recalling ISMP n° 11 on Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests, adopted under the International Plant Protection Convention;

Noting that trade provides increased opportunities for potentially invasive alien species to be transported to new locations, both intentionally and unintentionally;

Wishing to reduce the introduction or expansion through trade-related pathways of invasive alien species in the territory of Contracting Parties;

Recalling the reports “Overview of Existing International / Regional Mechanisms to Ban or Restrict Trade in Potentially Invasive Alien Species” by Ms Clare Shine [document T-PVS/Inf (2006) 8], and “Assessment of Existing Lists of Invasive Alien Species for Europe, with particular focus on species Entering Europe through Trade and Proposed Responses” by Mr Piero Genovesi and Riccardo Scalera [document T-PVS/Inf (2007) 2];

Welcoming the work of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) and its Standards PM3/67 “Guidelines for the management of invasive alien plants or potentially invasive alien plants which are intended for import or have been intentionally imported” and PM5/3 “Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests”, existing animal health frameworks, the European Environment Agency’s programme Streamlining European 2010 Biodiversity Indicators (EEA/SEBI 2010), the European Union’s project Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (EU DAISIE), the NEOBIOTA work, and, for the Nordic and Baltic states, the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS) portal, and recalling the need to avoid duplication of work with existing activities in other fora,

Recommends that Contracting Parties, in cooperation with other Parties where appropriate:

1.     carry out in-depth analysis of and research into trade-related pathways, examining imports and international movements of species and commodities, to:

‑      detect invasive and potentially invasive alien species that are intentionally moved in trade and strengthen measures to prevent unwanted introductions,

‑      assess the extent of unintentional introduction of potentially invasive alien species through trade-related pathways and take integrated measures based on the precautionary principle to minimise such introductions;

2.     examine, in particular, international trade liberalisation measures and intra-Community free movement of goods to assess their contribution to the introduction and spread of potentially invasive alien species;

3.    review national standards and regulatory frameworks, species lists for consultation by potential importers and data on invasive and potentially invasive alien species that are currently imported to improve, where necessary, existing procedures and information systems to strictly control trade in invasive alien species;

4.     strengthen and extend risk analysis prior to decision-making on the import of alien species that are invasive or potentially invasive, using risk analysis methodology and procedures based on objective and scientific criteria (such as EPPO Standard PM5/3);

5.     regulate as appropriate the intentional introduction, possession and trade in their territory of the invasive or potentially invasive alien species listed in Appendix 1 to this Recommendation, herein referred to as the “metalist”, applying the precautionary principle and where necessary, prohibiting the introduction, possession of and/or trade in those species that present an unacceptable risk (i.e. there is sufficient evidence of their negative impact on ecosystems, habitats or species from a risk analysis or other objective sources). For species included in the metalist, which is an indicative alert list, consider the following management measures: 

‑      species classified as A category - alien species intentionally introduced as the commodity itself for release into the environment (such as game species, freshwater fishes, tree species of interest for forestry, biocontrol agents, etc.) : if the species presents an unacceptable risk, consider a regional or national ban on trade in such species and/or apply internal measures,

‑      species classified as B category - alien species intentionally introduced as the commodity itself (such as ornamental plants, agricultural plants, pets, crayfish, etc.) in a containment facility or in a controlled environment (such as botanic gardens, greenhouses, agricultural land, zoos, animal-breeding establishments, fish farms, etc.) : if the species presents an unacceptable risk, consider regional or national regulation of trade and/or stringent regulation of containment facilities, or apply internal measures,

‑      species classified as C category - alien species unintentionally introduced as a contaminant of a specific commodity (such as Anoplophora chinensis introduced in Italy through import of bonsai; parasites of specific fish species, fruit flies, micro cell disease Bonamia ostreae transported with oyster shipments, etc): if the species presents an unacceptable risk, consider applying specific treatments and measures across all relevant sectors (i.e. transport, agriculture, fishery, etc.) to prevent unwanted entry,

‑      species classified as D category - alien species unintentionally introduced with movements of people or of machinery (such as pests in wood packaging, hull fouling, ballast waters, contaminants in containers, hitchhikers on planes, etc.) : if the species presents an unacceptable risk, monitor pathways of introduction and consider regulation of related vectors across all relevant sectors (such as transport, agriculture, fisheries, etc.);

6.    ensure that trade regulations are accompanied - when feasible and appropriate - by stringent management provisions (such as regulation of containment facilities; eradication of already established populations; enforcement of control/containment campaigns, awareness raising at Customs points, effective communication campaigns, etc.);

7.    propose, in the framework of the Convention, amendments that would permit the updating of the metalist presented in Appendix 1 of this Recommendation, taking account of work carried out by other organisations or based on risk analysis or other evidence of a species having negative effects on  ecosystems, habitats or species, in order to build a comprehensive metalist of invasive alien species or potentially invasive alien species already present in Europe or expected to arrive in the next future, giving priority to species that are not yet widespread;

8.    promote closer co-operation at the European and Mediterranean level to prevent introduction of invasive alien species through trade by exchanging information on trade, expanding species lists as appropriate and promoting coordinated risk assessment and other appropriate measures to control IAS movement and expansion.; in that context, support the development of international comprehensive registers of IAS, such as the Global Register of Invasive Species (GRIS) being developed by the World Conservation Union’s Invasive Species Specialist Group (IUCN ISSG);

9.     improve national and European information systems on IAS, in particular with respect to trade pathways and early warning systems; in this context, consider establishing more stringent reporting mechanisms for IAS in the framework of the Convention and other appropriate mechanisms,

Further invites Observer states to apply the recommendation above.


Appendix 1 Metalist of known invasive alien species for Europe



Species / Group of species

*species listed in depoorted and pagad 2007

Trade category

EPPO

A1 list

EPPO

A2 list

EPPO list of invasive alien plants

EEA/

SEBI

Nobanis

Daisie

Reg.

338/97

Mammals

Ammotragus lervia

A

1

Callosciurus finlaysoni

B

1

Castor canadensis

A

1

1

Cervus nippon

A

1

1

Eutamia sibiricus

B

1

Herpestes javanicus *

A

1

Muntiacus reevesii

A

1

Mustela vison  *

B

1

1

1

Myocastor coypus

B

1

1

Nyctereutes procyonoides

B

1

1

1

Ondatra zibethicus

B

1

1

1

Oryctolagus cuniculus *

B

1

Procyon lotor

B

1

1

Rattus norvegicus *

D

1

1

Sciurus carolinensis

B

1

1

Birds

Acridotheres tristis

B

1

Alopochen aegyptiacus

B

1

Branta canadensis

B

1

1

Corvus splendens

B

1

Oxyura jamaicensis

A

1

1

1

Psittakula krameri

B

1

Threskiornis aethiopicus

B

1

1

Amphibians & reptiles

Chrisemys picta

B

1

Rana catesbeiana

A

1

1

1

Trachemys scripta elegans

B

1

1

1

1

Xenopus laevis

B

1

Fishes

Ameiurus nebulosus

A

1

Aphanius dispar

D

1

Carassius auratus gibelio

A

1

Carpio haematopterus/Cyprinus carpio *

A

1

Fistularia commersoni

D

1

1

Gambusia affinis

A

1

Lepomis gibbosus *

A

1

Liza haematocheila ex Mugil soiuy

A, B, D

1

Micropterus salmoides

A

1

Neogobius melanostomus *

D, C?

1

1

1

Oncorhynchus mykiss

A

1

1

Perccottus glenii

B, D

1

Phoxinus phoxinux

D

1

Pseudorasbora parva

A

1

1

1

Salmo salar

A, B

1

1

Salvelinus fontinalis

A

1

1

Sander lucioperca

A

1

Saurida undosquamis

D

1

1

Seriola fasciata

D

1

Siganus luridus

D

1

Siganus rivulatus

D

1

1

Silurus glanis

A

1

Sphoeroides pachygaster

D

1

Crustaceans

Acartia tonsa

D

1

1

Balanus improvisus

D

1

Cercopagis pengoi

D

1

1

1

Charbydis logicollis

D

1

Chelicorophium curvispinum

D

1

Dikerogammarus villosus

A, D

1

1

Elminius modestus

D

1

Eriocheir sinensis

D

1

1

1

Gammarus tigrinus

D

1

Homarus americanus

B

1

Marsupenaeus japonicus

A, B

1

Metapenaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus

A, B

1

Orconectes limosus *

A

1

Pacifastacus leniusculus

A

1

1

Paralithodes camtschatica

A

1

1

1

Percnon gibbesi

B, D

1

1

Pontogammarus robustoides

A, D

1

Procambarus clarkii *

A, B

1

1

Insects

Acleris gloverana A1/281

C

1

Acleris variana A1/32

C

1

Aculops fuchsiae A1/185

C

1

Aedes albopictus

D

1

Aeolesthes sarta A2/307

C

1

Agrilus planipennis A1/322

C

1

Aleurocanthus spiniferus A1/186

C

1

Aleurocanthus woglumi A1/103

C

1

Amauromyza maculosa A1/152

C

1

Anastrepha fraterculus A1/229

C

1

Anastrepha ludens A1/230

C

1

Anastrepha obliqua A1/231

C

1

Anastrepha suspensa A1/200

C

1

Anoplophora chinensis A1/187

C

1

1

1

Anoplophora glabripennis A1/296

D, C

1

1

1

Anthonomus bisignifer A1/189

C

1

Anthonomus eugenii A1/202

C

1

Anthonomus grandis A1/34

C

1

Anthonomus signatus A1/164

C

1

Aphis gossypi

C

1

Bactrocera cucumis A1/203

C

1

Bactrocera cucurbitae A1/232

C

1

Bactrocera dorsalis A1/233

C

1

Bactrocera minax A1/234

C

1

Bactrocera tryoni A1/235

C

1

Bactrocera tsuneonis A1/236

C

1

Bactrocera zonata A1/302

C

1

Bemisia tabaci A2/178

C

1

Blitopertha orientalis A1/33

D, C

1

Cacoecimorpha pronubana A2/104

C

1

Cacyreus marshalli A2/181

C

1

Cameraria ohridella

D, C

1

1

Carposina sasakii A2/163

C

1

Ceratitis capitata A2/105

C

1

1

Ceratitis rosa A1/237

C

1

Choristoneura conflictana A1/205

C

1

Choristoneura fumiferana A1/206

C

1

Choristoneura occidentalis A1/207

C

1

Choristoneura rosaceana A1/208

C

1

Conotrachelus nenuphar A1/35

D

1

Corythucha arcuata

C

1

Cydia inopinata A2/193

C, D

1

Cydia packardi A1/209

C, D

1

Cydia prunivora A1/36

C, D

1

Dacus ciliatus A2/238

C

1

Dendroctonus adjunctus A1/43

C

1

Dendroctonus brevicomis A1/263

C

1

Dendroctonus frontalis A1/264

C

1

Dendroctonus ponderosae A1/265

C

1

Dendroctonus pseudotsugae A1/266

C

1

Dendroctonus rufipennis A1/267

C

1

Dendrolimus sibiricus A2/308

C

1

Dendrolimus superans A2/330

C

1

Diabrotica barberi A1/210

C, D

1

Diabrotica speciosa A1/303

C, D

1

Diabrotica undecimpunctata A1/292

C, D

1

Diabrotica virgifera A2/199

C, D

1

1

Diaphorina citri A1/37

C

1

Dryocoetes confusus A1/268

C

1

Dryocosmus kuriphilus A2/317

C

1

Epitrix cucumeris A1/299

D

1

Epitrix tuberis A1/165

D

1

Erschoviella musculana A2/318

C, D

1

Eutetranychus orientalis A2/288

C

1

Frankliniella occidentalis A2/177

C

1

1

Gnathotrichus sulcatus A1/269

C

1

Gonipterus gibberus A1/301

C, D

1

Gonipterus scutellatus A2/38

C, D

1

Harmonia axyridis

A

1

1

Helicoverpa armigera A2/110

C

1

Helicoverpa zea A1/195

C

1

Heteronychus arator A1/297

C, D

1

Homalodisca coagulata A1/336

C

1

Hyphantria cunea

C

1

Ips calligraphus A1/270

C

1

Ips confusus A1/271

C

1

Ips grandicollis A1/272

C

1

Ips hauseri A2/326

C

1

Ips lecontei A1/273

C

1

Ips pini A1/274

C

1

Ips plastographus A1/275

C

1

Ips subelongatus A2/325

C

1

Lasius neglectus

D

1

Lepidosaphes ussuriensis A2/319

C

1

Leptinotarsa decemlineata A2/113

C

1

1

Limonius californicus A1/304

D, C

1

Linepithema humile

D

1

1

Liriomyza huidobrensis A2/283

C

1

1

Liriomyza sativae A2/282

C

1

Liriomyza trifolii A2/131

C

1

Listronotus bonariensis A1/168

C, D

1

Lopholeucaspis japonica A2/289

C

1

Lymantria mathura A2/331

D, C

1

Maconellicoccus hirsutus A1/314

C

1

Malacosoma americanum A1/276

C

1

Malacosoma disstria A1/213

C

1

Malacosoma parallela A2/320

C

1

Margarodes prieskaensis A1/214

D, C

1

Margarodes vitis A1/215

D, C

1

Margarodes vredendalensis A1/216

D, C

1

Melanotus communis A1/305

D

1

Naupactus leucoloma A1/293

C, D

1

Numonia pirivorella A2/184

C

1

Oligonychus perditus A1/217

C

1

Opogona sacchari A2/154

C

1

Orgyia pseudotsugata A1/218

C

1

Paysandisia archon A2/338

C

1

Pissodes nemorensis A1/44

C

1

Pissodes strobi A1/258

C

1

Pissodes terminalis A1/259

C

1

Popillia japonica A2/40

D, C

1

Premnotrypes latithorax, P. suturicallus & P. vorax A1/143

C

1

Quadraspidiotus perniciosus A2/117

C

1

Rhagoletis cingulata A2/239

C

1

Rhagoletis fausta A1/241

C

1

Rhagoletis indifferens A1/242

C

1

Rhagoletis mendax A1/243

C

1

Rhagoletis pomonella A1/41

C

1

Rhizoecus hibisci A1/300

C

1

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus A2/339

C

1

1

Rhynchophorus palmarum A1/332

C

1

Scirtothrips aurantii A1/221

C

1

Scirtothrips citri A1/222

C

1

Scirtothrips dorsalis A2/223

C

1

Scolytus morawitzi A2/309

C

1

Sirex ermak A2 327

D, C

1

Spodoptera eridania A1/196

C

1

Spodoptera frugiperda A1/197

C

1

Spodoptera littoralis A2/120

C

1

1

Spodoptera litura A1/42

C

1

Sternochetus mangiferae A1/286

C

1

Strobilomya viaria A2/333

D

1

Tecia solanivora A2/310

C

1

Tetropium gracilicorne A2/311

C

1

Thrips palmi A1/175

C

1

Toxoptera citricida A1/45

C

1

Trialeurodes vaporarium

C

1

Trioza erytreae A1/46

C

1

Trogoderma granarium A2/121

D

1

Tuta absoluta A1/321

C

1

Unaspis citri A1/226

C

1

Viteus vitifoliae A2/106

C

1

Xylotrechus altaicus A2/312

C

1

Xylotrechus namanganensis A2/328

C

1

Anellids

Artioposthia triangulata

C

1

Ficopomatus enigmaticus

D

1

1

Hydroides dianthus

D

1

Hydroides elegans

D

1

Hydroides ezoensis

D

1

Marenzelleria neglecta

D

1

1

Marenzelleria viridis

D

1

1

Pileolaria berkeleyana

D

1

Spirorbis marioni

D

1


Molluscs

Anadara spp  inaequivalvis/demiri

A, B

1

Anodonta (Sinanodonta) woodiana

C, A

1

Arion lusitanicus

C

1

Arion vulgaris

C

1

1

Brachiodontes pharaonis

D

1

Corbicula fluminea

D

1

1

Crassostrea gigas

A, B

1

Crepidula fornicata

C, D

1

1

Dreissena bugensis

D

1

Dreissena polymorpha

D

1

1

1

Ensis americanus

D

1

Musculista senhousia

A, B

1

1

Petricola pholadiformis

A, B

1

Pinctada radiata

A, B, C, D

1

1

Potamopyrgus antipodarum

D

1

Rapana venosa

C, D

1

1

Ruditapes philippinarum

A

1

Teredo navalis

D

1

Comb jellies

Beroe cucumi

1

Blackfordia virginica

1

Mnemiopsis leidyi

D

1

1

Hydroids, jellyfish, sea anemones & corals

Cordylophora caspia

D

1

1

Craspedacusta sowerbyi

D

1

Polypodium hydriforme

1

Rhopilema nomadica

D

1

1

Ascidians and sessile tunicates

Microcosmus squamifer

1

Styela clava

D

1

1


Bryozoans

Tricellaria inopinata

1

1

Victorella pavida

1

Flatworms

Artioposthia triangulata (Arthurdendyus triangulatus )

1

Fasciola gigantica

1

Gyrodactylus salaris

1

1

1

Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae

1

Cestoda

Botriocephalus acheilognathi

1

Nematodes

Anguillicola crassus

C

1

1

1

Aphelenchoides besseyi A2/122

C

1

Ashworthius sidemi

C

1

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vectors in the genus Monochamus A1/158

C, D

1

1

1

Ditylenchus dipsaci A2/174

C, D

1

Globodera pallida A2/124

C

1

Globodera rostochiensis A2/125

C

1

Heterodera glycines A2/167

C, D

1

Meloidogyne chitwoodii A2/227

C, D

1

Meloidogyne fallax A2/295

C, D

1

Nacobbus aberrans A1/144

C, D

1

Radopholus citrophilus A1/161

C, D

1

Radopholus similis A2/126

C, D

1

Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto A1/150

D

1

Xiphinema bricolense A1/260

D

1

Xiphinema californicum A1/261

D

1

Xiphinema rivesi A2/262

D

1

Plants

Acacia dealbata

A

1

1

Acacia saligna

A

1

Acer negundo *

A

1

1

Acroptilon repens

C, D

1

Ailanthus altissima *

A

1

1

1

Ambrosia artemisiifolia *

C, D

1

1

1

Amelanchier spicata

A, B

1

1

Amorpha fruticosa *

A, D

1

1

Anthriscus sylvestris

Indigenous

1

Arceuthobium abietinum

C

1

Arceuthobium americanum

C

1

Arceuthobium campylopodum

C

1

Arceuthobium douglasii

C

1

Arceuthobium laricis

C

1

Arceuthobium minutissimum

C

1

Arceuthobium occidentale

C

1

Arceuthobium pusillum

C

1

Arceuthobium spp. (non-European) A1/24

C

1

Arceuthobium tsugense

C

1

Arceuthobium vaginatum

C

1

Aster novi-belgii agg.

A

1

Azolla filiculoides

C, D

1

1

1

Baccharis halimifolia

A

1

Bidens frondosa

C, D

1

1

Buddleja davidii

A

1

Bunias orientalis

D

1

1

Campylopus introflexus

C

1

1

Cabomba caroliniana

B

1

Carpobrotus edulis * &  C. spp.

A

1

1

1

Cenchrus incertus

D

1

Cenchrus longispinus

D

1

Cortaderia selloana

A

1

1

1

Crassula helmsii A2/340 (A2 in 2006)

B, C, D

1

1

1

1

Cyperus esculentus

C

1

Echinocystis lobata *

C, D

1

1

Egeria densa

B, C, D

1

Elodea canadensis

C, D

1

1

Elodea nuttallii

C, D

1

1