Strasbourg, 9 October 2014
AD HOC COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS ON ROMA ISSUES (CAHROM)
CONCLUSIONS OF THE THEMATIC REPORT ON
THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY ROMA
(further to the CAHROM thematic visit to Zagreb and Međimurje County, Croatia,
from 24 to 26 September 2014)
Experts from CROATIA, requesting country:
Mr Branko SOČANAC, CAHROM member, Director of the Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities
Mr Aleksa ĐOKIĆ, CAHROM substitute member, Assistant Director, Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities
Dr Zoran LAPOV, PhD in Methodologies of Pedagogical Research: Theory and History (Intercultural and Minority Studies), Researcher at the University of Florence, Department of Education, Expert in Romani language and its variants spoken in Western Balkans
Dr Petar RADOSAVLJEVIĆ, PhD in romance linguistics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (Department of Romance Languages and Literature), University of Zagreb, Expert in Boyash Romanian and its varieties spoken in Croatia
Experts from AUSTRIA, HUNGARY, ROMANIA AND THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC, partner countries:
Austria:Dr Dieter W. HALWACHS, Sociolinguist, Language Centre of Graz University, member of the Experts’ Committee of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
HungaryMs Zsófia PILLÁR, Rapporteur on Social Inclusion in Public Education, Ministry of Human Resources, Deputy for Social Inclusion
RomaniaProf. Dr Gheorghe SARĂU, Linguist, Adviser for the Romani language in the General Division for Education in Minority Languages within the Ministry of National Education
Slovak RepublicMr Ján HERO, CAHROM member, Director of the Department of Conceptions, Analysis and Regional Coordination, Plenipotentiary Office of Slovak Government for Roma Community, Ministry of Interior of Slovak Republic
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTIONpage 3
1.1Background of the thematic report and visitpage 3
1.2Composition of the thematic group of expertspage 3
1.3Agenda of the thematic visitpage 4
1.4Terminology used in this reportpage 4
II. CONTEXT AND EXPECTATIONSpage 5
2.1Context and purpose of the thematic report and visitpage 5
2.2Expectations and items for discussionpage 5
2.3Size and composition of the Roma groups in the participating countriespage 5
2.3.1 Austriapage 5
2.3.2 Croatiapage 5
2.3.3 Hungarypage 6
2.3.4 Romaniapage 6
2.3.5 Slovak Republicpage 6
2.4 Languages spoken by Roma groups in the participating countriespage 6
2.4.1 Austriapage 6
2.4.2 Croatiapage 6
2.4.3 Hungarypage 6
2.4.4 Romaniapage 6
2.4.5 Slovak Republicpage 6
III. RELEVANT COUNCIL OF EUROPE STANDARDS AND REFERENCE TEXTSpage 7
IV. LEGISLATION, POLICIES, STRUCTURES AND SPECIFIC MEASURESpage 12
4.1Protection of languages spoken by Romapage 12
4.1.2 Croatiapage 12
4.1.3 Hungarypage 12
4.1.5 Slovak Republicpage 12
4.2Promotion of languages spoken by Romapage 13
4.2.2 Croatiapage 13
4.2.3 Hungarypage 13
4.2.5 Slovak Republicpage 13
4.3Teaching of languages spoken by Romapage 14
4.3.2 Croatiapage 14
4.3.3 Hungarypage 14
4.3.5 Slovak Republicpage 14
V. CONCLUSIONS, LESSONS LEARNT AND GOOD PRACTICES IDENTIFIEDpage 15
5.1General conclusions and lessons learnt page 15
5.2Specific conclusions and recommendationspage 16
5.3Good practices identifiedpage 20
5.4Follow-up and proposals for future thematic groups/visitspage 21
Appendix 1: Formal invitation received from Croatiapage 23
Appendix 2:List of experts and participants of the thematic visitpage 23
Appendix 3:Agenda of the thematic visitpage 23
Appendix 4:Presentations delivered during the thematic visitpage 23
At the 5th CAHROM plenary meeting (Strasbourg, 14-16 May 2013), during an exchange of views between the CAHROM participants and the Secretariat of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (hereafter “the ECRML” or “the Language Charter”) on the protection of the Romani language under the Language Charter, the representative of the European Roma and Travellers Forum (ERTF) raised the issue of Croatia’s reservation concerning Article 7 (5) of the ECRML (i.e. a reservation concerning the application of the ECRML to non-territorial languages)  and requested that the Romani language be recognised and protected in conformity with the ECRML. Following this exchange of views, on 28 May 2013, the ERTF president, Mr Rudko Kawczynski, addressed a letter to Ms Vesna Pusić, First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of the Croatian governmentregarding the withdrawal of the Croatian reservation to Article 7 (5) of the ECRML. In this letter, the ERTF welcomed the fact that the Croatian government under its presidency of the Decade for Roma Inclusion (July 2012-June 2013) had included Romani language among its priorities and underlined that the decision to establish 5 November as the International Romani Language Day was taken in Croatia during a meeting of the International Romani Union (IRU) in 2008.
At the following CAHROM plenary meeting (Rome, Italy, 28-31 November 2013), the Committee heard a presentation by the Secretariat of the ECRML of the Study “Romani, Education, Segregation and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages”. On that occasion, Mr Branko Sočanac, Croatian CAHROM member, announced that his authorities would withdraw their reservation by the end of 2013. Additionally, he informed the Committee of the willingness of the Croatian authorities to be a requesting country for a thematic group on the protection and promotion of the Romani language. A letter from the Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities of the Government of Croatia inviting partner countries’ experts and the CAHROM Secretariat to visit Zagreb and Međimurje County on 24-26 September 2014 was received by the Secretariat on 18 July 2014 (see Appendix 1).
During that meeting, several CAHROM members expressed an interest for participating in such a thematic group, including Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, and the Slovak Republic. Following informal consultations between the CAHROM Secretariat and the Secretariat of the ECRML, the CAHROM Bureau, at its 7th meeting on 18 January 2014, on the basis of experience under the ECRML and the need to give priority to countries that have not yet participated in CAHROM thematic groups, decided to include Austria, Montenegro, Romania and the Slovak Republic as partner countries. This list was confirmed at the 8th CAHROM plenary meeting (Strasbourg, 14-6 May 2014).
However, due to the absence of nomination of an expert from Montenegro, and bearing in mind that Hungary’s experience in promoting and teaching the Boyash-Romanian language, also spoken by the Boyash community in Croatia, could be useful in the Croatian context, it was decided to replace Montenegro by Hungary which accepted to be a partner country for this thematic group.
1.2Composition of the thematic group of experts
The thematic group of experts was a mixed composition of researchers, academics, linguists, educational experts and governmental officials from the respective participating countries (see their names on the front page and their full contact details in Appendix 2).
Other interlocutors of the group of experts included members of parliament, the president of the Council of National Minorities, a representative of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, Međimurje County officials (the Deputy Prefect and the Head of Međimurje County Social Affairs and Education Department, as well as the Mayor of Orehovica municipality), leaders of the Roma and Boyash communities, in particular Roma National Council NGO representatives and Roma National Minority Council representatives, school directors, teachers and Roma school assistants in Međimurje county, the Vice-Dean and professors of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Zagreb University, the Dean and the Vice-Dean (Department in Čakovec), as well as professors of the Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb, a representative of the Centre for Peace in Vukovar, as well as the Ambassador and Deputy Head of Mission of the Romanian Embassy in Zagreb.
1.3Agenda of the thematic visit
The agenda of the thematic visit, which appears in Appendix 3, was organised by the Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities and the Roma National Council. The programme of first day included introductory remarks from governmental representatives, members of parliament and representatives of the Roma and the National Council for National Minorities (Savjet za nacionalne manjine); researchers’ presentations on the languages spoken by Roma in Croatia (i.e. Romani and Boyash Romanian), including their local variants; an exchange of views between Croatian participants and partner countries’ experts on the legal protection of languages spoken by Roma at national level and under the ECRML; Council of Europe standards, recommendations, tools and materials aimed at the promotion of Romani history, culture and language, as well as practical measures taken for the teaching of languages spoken by Roma communities in Croatia and in partner countries. On the second day, the group of experts went to Međimurje County and visited a local pre-school educational programme and a primary school in Orehovica, met with representatives of the Municipality and the Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb (the Dean, professors, and the Vice-Dean of the Department in Čakovec), and discussed self-identity and linguistic and educational needs of the Boyash community. After returning to Zagreb, Romanian-speaking members of the thematic group of experts met with the Romanian Embassy. The morning of the 3rd day was devoted to a debriefing meeting between experts of the thematic group and the Secretariat. This debriefing was attended by the representative of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports.
The group of experts had an opportunity to attend a celebration of the European Day of Languages (25 September) in Orehovica primary school during the thematic visit in Međimurje. This was a nice and emotional opportunity for the group of experts and the mayor of Orehovica to see children from various ethnic backgrounds delivering messages in various European languages, including in Boyash Romanian. On that occasion, the school showed a video made with school pupils from various ethnic backgrounds (including Roma) that won the No hate speech campaign competition in Croatia, as well as a music clip in German. One of the children also referred to the Dosta! campaign against prejudice and stereotypes towards Roma which is implemented in Croatia.
V. CONCLUSIONS, LESSONS LEARNT AND GOOD PRACTICES IDENTIFIED
5.1 General conclusions and lessons learnt
As a result of the thematic visit to Zagreb and Međimurje County, the following conclusions were drawn up:
During the field visit, it was decided to include Dr Petar Radosavljević in the list of experts of the thematic group as he participated in all the discussions and is a valuable linguistic expert for Boyash Romanian, whilst Dr Zoran Lapov provided expertise for the Romani language.
At the debriefing meeting, the group of experts agreed to rename the report thematic report on the protection and promotion of languages spoken by Roma in order to better reflect the scope of discussions held during the thematic visit.
5.2Specific conclusions and recommendations
5.2.1Reservation introduced by Croatia in its ratification instrument of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
The group of experts strongly encouraged the Croatian government to lift its reservation concerning Article 7 (5) of the ECRML as soon as possible. They underlined that keeping such a reservation constituted a strange paradox bearing in mind inter alia that:
The group of experts took note that this reservation should soon be lifted by the Croatian authorities. Mr Sočanac, Director of the Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities, explained that the Croatian Government had already taken a positive decision in this regard and that delay was due to bureaucratic procedures. He hoped that he could announce the lifting of this reservation at the next CAHROM meeting in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (28-31 October 2014).
The group of experts also took note that Ms Nada Jakir, the representative of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, was in favour of lifting the reservation. She underlined however that this was a complex issue which required careful attention and preparation for effective implementation. She ensured that funding for the promotion and teaching of languages spoken by Roma was available under the budget allocated for national minority languages despite the economic crisis. However, this might imply a redistribution of the overall envelope between all minority languages, should Romani and Boyash Romanian be included in the teachers’ training and scholarship programmes of the Ministry. As it would certainly lead to disagreements between minorities and would not benefit the image of the Roma, the group of experts strongly advised against a cut in other minority languages’ envelope.
5.2.2Protection of languages spoken by Roma in Croatia
The group of experts took note of presentations made by Dr Zoran Lapov on the Romani language and its variants spoken in Croatia, and by Dr Petar Radosavljević on Boyash Romanian and its three variants spoken in Croatia (namely Transylvanian, Baranja Muntenian and Ludari Muntenian). The group of experts heard several concerns expressed by a number of interlocutors they met during the thematic visit and complementary information provided by experts from Austria and Romania which can be summarized as follows:
The Croatian participants, in particular from the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports and of the Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities, took note of the Hungarian precedent of recognising two languages under the Language Charter for one single national/ethnic minority. As explained by the Hungarian expert, Hungary recognises Roma languages, i.e. Romani (R(r)omani ćhib/čhib) and Boyash (Béas) under the ECRML. The Austrian expert also referred to the example of Norway which applies the Language Charter to both Romanes (spoken by Norwegian Roma) and Romani (spoken by Norwegian Travellers) as separate non-territorial languages.
Whilst the Hungarian example offers the possibility for Croatia to apply the Language Charter to two languages spoken by one minority group, the terminology “Roma languages” used in Hungary was not considered as the most appropriate in the Croatian context. The speakers of Romani wish to underline that there is only one Romani language (R(r)omani ćhib/čhib) (“Roma languages” might be misunderstood as “Romani languages” in plural); however, Boyash community leaders wish to underline that they speak an idiom of the standard Romanian language and not a language on its own (which is also the view shared by the Romanian Embassy in Zagreb).
Having carefully heard all these various opinions, whilst there seemed to be no problem regarding the use of Romani (R(r)omani ćhib/čhib) to designate the language spoken by Romani-speaking Roma, the group of experts came to the conclusion that Boyash Romanian should be used in the Croatian context instead of simply Boyash (as it is not a language on its own) or simply Romanian (as this variety has specific linguistic features and would disconnect the Boyash community from the Roma national minority to which they are acculturated). The term Boyash Romanian (which is also the terminology proposed by the Secretariat of the ECRML) seems to be the most acceptable term by everybody, i.e. by all experts of the thematic group, by Boyash leaders in Međimurje, by the Romanian Embassy in Zagreb and by Croatian official interlocutors (the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports and the Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities).
The group of experts would therefore recommend Croatian authorities to withdraw their reservation to Article 7 (5) of the ECRML and apply the Language Charter to “languages spoken by Roma in Croatia: Romani and Boyash Romanian”. 
Whilst this compromise was a positive outcome of lengthy discussions and could be the starting point for governmental action for these two linguistic groups who are requesting governmental recognition and support, experts of the thematic group underlined that this does not fully reflect the linguistic spectrum of Roma in Croatia since there is a third linguistic category, i.e. the Albanian-speaking Ashkali who are estimated to be 5% of the total estimated number of Roma in Croatia (30,000-40,000). Since there was no meeting organised with Ashkali representatives, their view could not be taken into consideration. The experts of the thematic group wish to recall that in several member States of the Council of Europe, Ashkali do not want to be recognised as Roma (unlike Boyash). In the absence of present claims from the part of Ashkali living in Croatia, the group of experts would advise the Croatian government to go ahead, without further delay, with two languages, i.e. Romani and Boyash Romanian. In addition, Ashkali’s linguistic needs could be partially met by making them benefit from language classes already delivered in Albanian (which is not an option for Boyash Romanian since standard Romanian is not yet taught in Croatia).
5.2.3Promotion of languages spoken by Roma in Croatia
The group of experts concentrated its discussion on the teaching of Romani and Boyash Romanian and did not have enough time to address the use of Romani and Boyash Romanian in the media or public life. However concrete examples of such use can be found in the Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak presentations, including the use by these countries of European Structural Funds to promote the languages spoken by Roma.
The group of experts took note of a rather large set of existing instruments of language promotion, available for the Romani language in Croatia. Concrete experiences in the field of Romani teaching, as well as initiatives regarding the promotion of Romani language and culture in Croatia, are not missing. They are extremely important as they pave a basis for a further promotion of Romani teaching and usage in Croatia.
Whatever their characterisation might be, and considering the context and available conditions, these experiences are mainly implemented as:
→ Extra-curricular initiatives (not to say “interventions”), e.g. lessons on Romani or, to a lesser extent, in Romani, with the goal of raising socio-cultural awareness; yet, the main outcome is the following: it is mainly about teaching on Romani culture and history, and less about teaching on or in the Romani language;
→ Another field is one seeing Romani as a “bridge” (auxiliary) language in teaching activities aimed at acquiring or improving a competence in the majority language – cases are quite rare as most Roma are (at least) bilingual and usually know the majority language; the goal is to bridge gaps in education, while the main outcome has been: “teaching assistants” or “facilitators”, which often turn into a kind of “mediators.”
What sounds problematic to the group of experts is the usage of these instruments which proves to be too irregular, isolated and discontinuous, almost “self-referent”, especially in the field of teaching (cf. the next chapter). Romani still waits to be recognised by lifting the reservation under the ECRML (but not exclusively), which would help in its promotion.
5.2.4Teaching of languages spoken by Roma in Croatia
The group of experts believes that Romani and Boyash Romanian should both be recognised as minority languages spoken by Roma and included in the programme and budget of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports in addition to the 14 already covered minority languages. The experts of the thematic group agreed with the representative of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports that the C model seemed to be the most adapted for the teaching of Romani and Boyash Romanian in Croatia for the time being.
The experts’ view was that training of teachers proposed and financed by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports should not be limited to training teachers how to teach Roma children but also how to teach Romani and Boyash Romanian as is the case for other teachers’ training on minority languages.
The group of experts would also encourage Croatian education authorities to progressively diminish the number of shifts for Roma and non Roma pupils’ education which would also allow more time for intercultural activities and minority language learning.
As proposed by the Faculty of Teacher Education (Department in Čakovec), further training on how to teach Croatian as a second language, as well as intercultural methods, should be further developed for pre-school and primary school teachers teaching Roma children.
As regards more specifically Romani:
All of the past and current experiences should jointly converge into an integrated but plural offer of Romani educational programmes. To do so, the group of experts believes that efforts should be made to extract Romani teaching from a mere political agenda so as to include it in general pedagogical planning instead. With this, Romani should not be excluded from school classes (clear “NO” to special or segregated classes).
School and education systems should play an important role in this process by adopting and implementing the set of available experiences and language promotion instruments, and transforming both into specific curricula, based on intercultural methodologies aimed at community capacity building and pro-active citizen participation starting with education (e.g. Romani as both a taught and learnt language, interactive workshops involving Romani, multilingual education, amongst others).
On these grounds, pedagogical research and publishing production of textbooks and other materials aimed at Romani teaching should be fostered. Last but not least, lack of teaching staff calls for planning specific programmes aimed at teachers' training.
The group of experts suggests further developing summer schools to train educational assistants and teachers of Romani language in the three most widely spoken variants used in Croatia. Furthermore, one should slowly move from the introduction of the study of Romani in kindergartens, schools, and colleges, towards a formal discipline (3-4 hours weekly).
Whilst there seems to exist teaching material in Romani, textbooks in Romani are rather scarce and should be developed or imported from other countries (and, if needed, adapted to local variants of Romani spoken in Croatia).
Romani language and culture classes introduced at Zagreb University should be supported and promoted elsewhere in Croatia. Roma students should be encouraged and supported to attend these classes (so far students attending the pilot project are essentially non Roma students). Furthermore, the Romani culture could also become part of pre-school and school curricula, by all means in minority education, and, as far as possible, for all students. Roma minority cultural education would indeed boost students’ identity and self-esteem, and thus contribute to school success and support their personality development in the long run.
As regards more specifically Boyash Romanian:
The group of experts suggested that Boyash children should be initially taught through pre-school and primary education (e.g. until the 5th grade) the local variant of Boyash Romanian, using a script which should be as close as possible to standard Romanian but linguistically and didactically appropriate, taking into account the specific features of Boyash Romanian. For those Boyash children who would express the wish to learn standard Romanian this could be progressively proposed as an option (e.g. as from the 5th grade). This approach, proposed in Međimurje, received support from participants, including Boyash leaders and teachers. The same approach was also suggested by the Romanian Embassy in Zagreb. The Austrian expert recalled a similar experience carried out in Burgenland, Austria, for Burgenland Croats who speak an old variant of the Croatian language. Following the failure to introduce standard Croatian from the first grade, these children start learning the local form of Croatian and, are progressively given the possibility to learn standard Croatian, after the third grade.
Teachers and school assistants originating from the Boyash community could be trained to use and teach Boyash Romanian and its relevant script. As a mid-term objective, Romanian-speaking students in Croatia finishing faculties could be offered and trained to teach Boyash Romanian and eventually standard Romanian once this option has been introduced. There is indeed already a BA and an MA in Romanian language and literature at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (University of Zagreb) and an optional course in Boyash linguistic varieties. It was also agreed during the thematic visit that an optional course in Boyash Romanian for future teachers will be introduced at the Faculty of Teacher Education.
The Romanian authorities could be approached to provide teaching material in standard Romanian language for those who wish to learn standard Romanian. Both the representative of the Ministry of Education of Romania and the Romanian Embassy were positive about this possibility, as well as about pursuing the practice of offering summer schools of Romanian language in Romania.
Similar language and culture faculty classes, as those introduced for Romani in Zagreb University, could be developed for students interested in Boyash culture at universities in relevant counties. Interested students of Boyash origin should be also encouraged to study Romanian language and literature at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb.
5.3Good practices identified
5.4Follow-up and proposals for future thematic groups/visits
In addition, the Romanian expert of the thematic group has proposed the following: “given that, 25 years after the opening of the former communist countries to democracy, the study of/in the Romani language is still at its beginning in these countries, or does not even exist at all, meetings, such as those carried out in the framework of the CAHROM thematic visit to Croatia, should be organised on a more regular basis by the Education Directorate of the Council of Europe (associating the Secretariat and the Committee of Experts of the Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the CAHROM and other relevant structures of the Council of Europe), in the form of local meetings in different countries. Specialists, i.e. people who have proved that they know their specific field very well, from countries other than the country in which consultations are conducted could be invited to such meetings with the aim of debating and responding to the following questions:
APPENDIXProgramme of the thematic visit to Croatia, on 24 to 26 September 2014
Government of the Republic of Croatia
Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities
ROMSKO NACIONALNO VIJEĆE
RROMANO NACIONALNIKANO KONSILO
ROMA NATIONAL COUNCIL
University of Zagreb
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
FINAL PROGRAMME OF THE VISIT
OF THE CAHROM THEMATIC GROUP OF EXPERTS TO CROATIA
ON THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF THE ROMANI LANGUAGE
(Zagreb and Međimurje, CROATIA, 24-26 SEPTEMBER 2014)
Wednesday, 24 September 2014
Venue: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb. Address: Ivana Lučića 3, HR-10000 Zagreb
9.30-10.00 1. OPENING OF THE THEMATIC VISIT AND INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
9.30-10.001.1 Opening words
- Mr Branko Sočanac, Director of the Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities of the Republic of Croatia
- Ms Ivana Franić, Vice - Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb
- Mr Veljko Kajtazi, MP, President of the Roma National Council
-Mr Furio Radin, MP
-Mr Aleksandar Tolnauer, President of the Council for National Minorities
-Mr Michaël Guet, Head of the „I-Care“ Unit, Secretary of CAHROM, Support Team of the
Special Representative of the Secretary General for Roma issues, Council of Europe
10:00 – 10:15Coffee break
10.15-10.401.2 Short introduction to Council of Europe standards, recommendations, tools and material
Discussion, questions and answers
10.40-13.002. THE SITUATION IN CROATIA, HOSTING COUNTRY
Discussion, questions and answers
Discussion, questions and answers
14.00-16.003. EXCHANGE OF VIEWS AND PRACTICES WITH PARTNER COUNTRIES
14.00-14.303.1 Situation and practices in Austria
14.30-15.003.2 Situation and practices in Hungary
- Ms Zsófia Pillár
15.00-15.30Discussion, questions and answers
16.00-16.303.3 Situation in Romania
16.30-17.003.4 Situation in the Slovak Republic
17.00-17.30Discussion, questions and answers
17.30-18.00Conclusions of the first day
Thursday, 25 September 2014
FIELD VISIT TO MEĐIMURJE
9.00 Departure from the reception of the Hotel to Međimurje County
10.30-13.00 Visit to a local preschool educational programme and primary school in Orehovica, in the presence of representatives of the local Boyash community
Discussion, including about the linguistics needs of the Boyash community
14.00-16.00Visit to the Međimurje County and meeting with Teachers’ Academy in Čakovec, County authorities and Međimurje County Roma Minority Council
Discussion, including about the possibility to introduce classes in Boyash-Romanian dialect
16.00Return to Zagreb
17.00End of the second day
Friday, 26 September 2014
Venue: Hotel Arcotel Allegra, Branimirova 29, HR-10000 Zagreb
9.30-11.30Debriefing meeting between the experts of the CAHROM thematic group (from the host and partner countries), the representative of the Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports and the Secretariat of the Council of Europe
11.30Checking-out from the hotel.
12.00-13.00Departure from the hotel to Zagreb airport.
 The term “Roma” used at the Council of Europe refers to Roma, Sinti, Kale and related groups in Europe, including Travellers and the Eastern groups (Dom and Lom), and covers the wide diversity of the groups concerned, including persons who identify themselves as Gypsies.
 The Reservation contained in the instrument of ratification, deposited by Croatia on 5 November 1997, reads as follows: “The Republic of Croatia declares, in pursuance of Article 21 of the European Charter for Regional of Minority Languages, that in respect of the Republic of Croatia the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 5, of the Charter shall not apply.”
Article 7, paragraph 5 of the Language Charter states: “The Parties undertake to apply, mutatis mutandis, the principles listed in paragraphs 1 to 4 above to non-territorial languages. However, as far as these languages are concerned, the nature and scope of the measures to be taken to give effect to this Charter shall be determined in a flexible manner, bearing in mind the needs and wishes, and respecting the traditions and characteristics, of the groups which use the languages concerned.”
 See the ERTF letter in Appendix 4.
 See paragraph 19 of document CAHROM (2013)25 Abridged report of the 6th CAHROM meeting.
 See Dr Zoran Lapov and Dr Radosavljević’s presentations in Appendix 4.
 The Roma National Council is a non-governmental organisation envisaged as an umbrella Roma organisation.
 This is also the opinion expressed by the European Roma and Travellers Forum (ERTF) during its hearing with the Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (Strasbourg, 6 October 2005). The report of this hearing states the view of ERTF as follows: “Romani should be used instead of Roma languages. The Romani language is a single language, with numerous dialects used by different groups of Roma”.
 There are currently two Roma deputy mayors in Croatia.
 National Minority Councils are specific advisory bodies to local/regional self-governments established under the Constitutional Law on National Minorities.
 Experts of the thematic group indicated that Romani and Boyash Romanian (in English) could translate into Croatian as romski i bajaški rumunjski; into Romani as r(r)omani ćhib/čhib thaj e baješko idiomo e rumunikane ćhibǎqo; into Romanian as limba rromani şi graiul băieşesc al limbii române; and into French as “romani et idiome boyache de la langue roumaine”.
 See Chapters 2.3.2 and 2.4.2 above.
 See 5.2.1 above.
 See the presentation of the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports in Appendix 4.
 The group of experts was pleased during the thematic visit to see inclusive education set up in Orehovica which had been in the past an example of segregated classes condemned by the European Court of Human Rights (see Oršos v. Croatia case).
 See as a model the Methodology for the study of maternal language in Romania (Annex, art. 43,” idioms that still do not have an official status, but which can be taught in the educational system”).
 Developing a script for Boyash Romanian is however not the approach followed by the Committee of Experts of the ECRML in its 5th evaluation report.
 See footnote no.59.
 In Romania, 33,000 students are studying Romani annually with the help of 420-460 teachers, which is by far the most developed experience of this kind in Europe.
 In Romania, the choice was made to adopt the spelling of Romani approved at the 4th Congress of the International Romani Union (Warsaw, April 1990). It has been introduced in Romanian schools and at the University of Bucharest since 1990, responding perfectly to all the dialectal challenges of Romani in Romania.
 See the Romanian system of three types of human resource profile of Roma in the educational system in Appendix 4.
 Intensive summer-1st stage (3-4 weeks summer school of common Romani language and elements of teaching methodology of maternal Romani language) and Intensive summer-2nd stage (sending graduates from the summer school to prepare, as students, in open distance learning / or local (regional) courses, as teachers, educational assistants, professors of Romani language or working in kindergartens or classes in that language). Until today, Romania has prepared 1,200 potential educational human resources in summer schools, some of whom already had pedagogical studies, others have followed ID in parallel with their daytime teaching in kindergartens and schools.
 Such summer exchange could be expanded (and encouraged by the Council of Europe) at the level of Balkan region and Eastern Europe where the Boyash/Rudari are living (Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Ukraine).
 As an example, textbooks used in Romania for Romani teaching and for teaching Roma history and mathematics in the Romani language, could be shared with interested countries and specialists developing textbooks.
 The group of experts noted that the Roma National Council and Croatian MP, Mr Veljko Kajtazi, are regularly organising conferences gathering linguists and other experts, artists and activists, on the occasion of the World Day of Romani Language (5 November), adopted by the International Romani Union (IRU) at its 7th Congress in Zagreb in 2008.